English is a language that continues to be extensively used in the course of the learning process. Some research work has been done regarding the experience of ESL students both in and out of the classroom context. This article attempts to explore the strategies that have been adopted by various ESL students in the course of performing writing tasks transcending the curriculum. Questions regarding the validity of the training under the EAP curriculum are also considered.
The goal of the research was to examine the academic literacy expertise of the students in light of the strategies they brought with them to their prime academic experience. “It is unlikely that ESL teachers or researchers interested in EAP support the notion that the mere forms of disciplinary discourses are worthy subjects for teaching or learning in EAP courses” (Leki 237). Research participants used managing competing demands strategy, which entailed; managing course loads, managing the work load for specific course, regulating the amount of investment in a specific assignment, regulating cognitive load, and managing the demands of life.
“In addition to providing successful experiences in writing in English, ESL classes can address other strategies.” (Ileki 257). This article also explored the strategies used by students when learning the ESL and EAP courses. It emphasizes the need to have an effective feedback system between students and teachers for the proper understanding of the curriculum.
Kozol discusses the differences in the education system in America due to discrimination on the basis of race and class based on the observation of various classes of school systems in Chicago, New York, East St. Louis, and Washington D.C. School reforms such as “restructuring” were advocated for inner cities; this acted as if they were taken care of, but in real sense they were not implemented. Racial segregation was still largely uncontested. Kozol argues that racial discrimination was a product of the gross dissimilarities resulting from unequal dispersion of revenue collected through property taxes and funds dispersed by the State.
The press in Boston had earmarked some areas as “death zones” specifically referring to the rate of infant death in the ghetto neighborhood. Kozol states that he did not understand why people would let their children go to schools in such places where no politician, school board president, or CEO would even work. For example, East St. Louis had many financial and sociological issues. “Residents of Illinois do not need to breathe the garbage smoke and chemicals of East St. Louis” (Kozol 15). There was no garbage collection mechanism, waste transportation was done through the city, pollution through toxic substance, poor governance (slashed budget), and lack of qualified teaching staff. “The budget of the city’s department of lead-poison control, however, has been slashed, and one person now does the work once done by six” (Kozol 18).
Kozol illustrates the income and wealth inequalities that existed amongst the population. He compares the amount spent on students attending the rich, suburban, white schools against those the expenditure by the students in poor public schools; the difference is alarming. “Compounding these problems is the poor nutrition of the children here—average daily food expenditure in East St. Louis is $2.40 for one child—and the under-immunization of young children” (Kozol 23).
Kozol argues that the poor education that most children received was as a result of a number of factors including discrimination on the basis of race and socio-economic status of the people. He mocked reforms made in the education sector as inhibited by the lack of goodwill to implement them. The rich white people would prefer status quo to be maintained at the expense of the poor people’s children who obtained substandard education. Kozol’s book ‘Savage Inequalities’ is undoubtedly a positive contribution of modern muckraking.