Analysis And Evaluation of Nursing Theories and models
In the analysis and evaluation of nursing theory and models, there are different aspects that one requires to put into considerations. A framework for the analysis and evaluation of nursing theories emphasize the most imperative features of grand theories and middle range theories and is apposite to the level of abstraction on these two categories of nursing theories (Fawcett, 2005). Framework for analysis and evaluation of nursing models was first published in 1993. On the other hand, framework for analysis and evaluation of nursing models was first published in 1980.
According to Fawcett (2000) the first step of nursing model analysis involves an assessment of four aspects in nursing model’s origins. The first aspects of origin include the historical evolution of the nursing model and motivation of authors in developing nursing model. The second aspect is examination of the author’s philosophic asserts concerning nursing and knowledge development approaches to formulating the model. The third aspect about origin is identifying authors’ thinking from scholars of adjunctive discipline and nurse’s scholars. The forth aspects involve assessment and examination of world’s view over the nursing model (Fawcett, 2000).
The second step of the analysis involves the assessment the unique focus in a nursing model. The need to recognize the unique spotlight of the nursing model stem from the verity that although most authors start with the similar view of the universal purpose of nursing, in the ultimate form, the nursing models presents idiosyncratic views of the meta-paradigm perception. Diverse models are apprehensive with dissimilar nurse patient circumstances or dissimilar person environment interface (Fawcett, 2000).
The third step is the assessment of the content of the nursing model. The content of models is presented in the structure of abstract and common concepts and proposition. A number of nursing model authors presents thoughts in the form of overt statement concerning each of the meta-paradigm concepts. Therefore, in examination one has to identify how a person or the environment has been defined and described.
In the evaluation of the nursing model, it is accomplished by contrasting the content with definite criteria. The criterion focused includes explication of origin, the logical congruence, generation of theory, credibility, and lastly the contribution to the discipline of nursing. In the first step of explication of origin, it entails identifying author’s values and beliefs acquiesces information concerning the philosophical practicalities models and assists recognize unique points of importance in the outlook of nursing put forward by nursing model. The second step of evaluation is correlated with breadth of content of the nursing model. At this step, it focuses on the breadth and depth of the content in a nursing model (Fawcett, 2000).
The third step of evaluation involves the assessment of the nursing model with the contemplations of the internal structure of the model. Logic congruence is examined via an intellectual process, which entails judging the similarity of the author’s espoused philosophical ascertains with the content of the nursing model. Furthermore, the process needs verdict about congruence of the global views and types of nursing skills reflected or shown in the model. The fourth step of nursing model evaluation entails generation of theory. The step reflects on the relation amid a more abstract and universal concept model and more tangible and explicit theory. Therefore, the degree to which nursing model directs to the generation of theory must be judged (Fawcett, 2000).
The firth step of evaluation entails credibility of the nursing model. Credibility determination is essential to evade the danger of unsuspecting adoption and acceptance of nursing models, which could easily result to their use as philosophies. The ultimate objective of credibility determination is to ascertain nursing model that are apposite for utilization in particular clinical situation. The sixth step the contribution of the nursing model to the nursing discipline. The step examines the impact of model in the day-to-day activity of nursing practice
(Fawcett, 2005) argued that there are distinctive steps in the analysis on nursing theories. The first step of the analysis is the scope of the theory, it examines extend of nursing theory or the range at which the theory covers. It addresses both the grand theories and middle range theories. Therefore, it examines to what level is the theory addressing nursing practice or problem. The second step in the analysis of nursing theory examines the context of the theory. The context of nursing theory is the environment in which nursing practice occur. In the analysis of theory, one will examine at what the environment or surrounding the theory was addressing or focusing. The third step of the analysis involves examining the content or the details of nursing theory. The content and the subject matter of the theory are articulated throughout the theory proposition and concepts.
In the evaluation of nursing theory, there are six steps, which are being involved. The first step in the evaluation of nursing theory centers on the perspective of the theory. The decisive factor is significance (Fawcett, 2005). The principle of significance needs justification of the magnitude of the theory to the discipline of the nursing profession.
The second step of evaluation is the internal consistency. It focuses on both content and context of the theory. The principle is the internal consistency. This criterion needs all elements of the theorist’s exertion including the conceptual model, philosophical claims and theory proposition and concepts, to be congruent. The third step of nursing theory evaluation centers only on the content of nursing theory. The criterion or principle is the parsimony. The principle needs a theory to be affirmed in the economic means probable exclusive of oversimplifying the phenomenon of interest (Fawcett, 2005).
The fourth step of nursing theory evaluation is testability. The principle is testability, and the step focuses on the content of the theory. Testability usually is regarded as the key feature of a scientifically valuable theory. The fifth step in nursing theory evaluation concerns with an appraisal of the theory’s empirical adequacy. The empirical adequacy principles or standard needs the statements made by the theory to be harmonious with empirical evidence. The last step of nursing theory evaluation is a pragmatic adequacy. The step focuses on the utility of the theory for practice. The principle or criterion is the pragmatic adequacy. A range to which the middle range or grand theory meets this principle is determined by reviewing all descriptions of the utilization of the theory in the practice (Fawcett, 2005).
A framework for the analysis and evaluation of nursing theories emphasize the most imperative features of grand theories and middle range theories and is apposite to the level of abstraction on these two categories of nursing theories. There are distinctive steps in the analysis on nursing theories.
Fawcett, & j, F. j. (2005). Contemporary nursing knowledge: analysis and evaluation of nursing models and theories (2nd ed.). Philadelphia:: F.A. Davis Co..
Fawcett, J. (2000). Analysis and evaluation of contemporary nursing knowledge: nursing models and theories. :. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis. Print.