It is very important for the author to ensure his work is convincing to the reader. In his argument, he should project to the reader that he is worth listening to. He is the authority in this directive. This is the basic ethical appeal to readers. The writer and the one receiving it are therefore trusted. The assumption that one is credible is a wrong deductive criterion. The possible idea is that one should substantiate either the academic papers with credible sources and express them clearly. As a writer, it is necessary to have authority over what you are writing and back it with relevant reference material to gain the trust of sources and the receiver or readers.
The writer persuades the emotions of the readers by good reasoning or smart appeals to the reader’s emotions. This is achieved through choosing the best language for the audience. It is important for the writer to understand the audience well and use a language that is best for this kind of context. For instance, the author is invoking the feelings of the readers though their imaginations. This is the critical skill required by the writers. When writing about a topic that does not need humor, you should tactically handle it to attract attention from the reader’s emotions. For instance, when writing about the administration of justice on criminals i.e. the burning of a thief; one can argue that burning thieves doesn’t cut on the rates of crime. However, academic papers are not supposed to be filled with emotions makes them look unprofessional.
Use of logical conclusions is important in that one deduces conclusions from facts and statistics in previous writings. Using of specific examples like numbers that are sound and logical is important. Therefore, the deduction from this statement is that to gain credibility, the writer should research and use statistical evidence and other facts that back up the information argued very well.
The basic questions that writers use to generate an argument are four: the fact question, the nature or meaning of the issue question, the quality or seriousness of the issue and the policy to employ. In the facts question, the writer investigates the issues of what happened. Whether a problem or an issue exists, then establishment of how it begun and its cause are determined and the changes that took place to cause the problem are ascertained. It is also determined if the problem is solved by changing the situation in place. In other words, an individual can ask himself the questions of data authenticity and reliability.
The next question is the nature of the issue. The writer establishes the nature of the issue, what the issue is exactly, the kind of the problem ascertained by the writer, the class in which this problem belongs to, the various parts of the problem and how these parts are related to each other. For a researcher, it is very critical to ask questions of what influences the description of the problem and how this believes influence the definition.
The quality of the issue is the third question. It is important to confirm if query here is a virtuous thing or an unscrupulous thing. Confirm how serious the problem is and the possible area or group where the problem will hit. A determination on what is likely to happen if no action is taken and what cost is involved in solving these issues is important. A good researcher will ask himself why and how the beliefs influence his determinations.
The last question is the plan of action. It is the determination on whether to take an action, who is involved in solving the issue and what action to take to solve or end this problem. The writer should professionally know why this believes influence his determination
The writer should know whether he or she addresses a single audience or multiple audiences. If the attention is not directed to the required audience, adjustments are made immediately to address single audience. This is achieved by looking into the purpose of the writer’s argument to have a keen focus on the audience. Good understanding of the strategies to reach the audience is explained i.e. use of one side or multi-sided arguments and delayed thesis to reach the audience.
Preparation of a fair summary to avoid the resistance of the audience is fully done. Preparation on how to refute views, why you should refute them, the points which you will concede to and how the writer will shift the argument so that it fits his values is important. This is very critical in adoption during a presentation to the audience.
The brutal strategies. This is the idea of denying validity of data to an audience, citation of counter examples in this case, the strategy of casting doubt on available evidence and the strategy of questioning testimonies and quotations. Interpretation of statistical data questioning is another strategy used. Only one strategy is used to avoid ambiguity. The use of humor to keep the audience lively plays a key role. The emotions of the audience are attracted much if they are clear from the information they receive.
Visuals are used to encompass the argument. Visual language is used to get the emotions of the readers. This works well if it is done before presentation of the real document. It makes readers develop a mental picture before reading the real document. They therefore have a summary before they receive the information.
Use of pictures. It is the giving pictures to the readers before or during the process of reading the argument article or book. This attracts their attention and they develop a mental picture before they get information from the real document. Photographs enhance the understanding of real events of an argument. To attract the attention, the image or picture should be beyond the expectations of the readers so as to enhance their urge to further know why such a picture was chosen instead of the natural norm of the society. An example is the use of a girl to advertise basketball in male dominated society with only male basketball players.
Provision of experiment results to the readers strengthens their confidence about the author. The readers can follow the experiment procedures and draw conclusions. This is said to provide secondary information to the reader of the initial information which is gained from analysis of the experiment results provided.
The use of emotions before the readers. Giving of vivid explanations on how something was done and letting the reader develop a mental picture that attaches him or her to the arguments of the writer. The emotions are so high in that if the reader manages to follow the image created by demonstration then the picture formed forms the primary information to the reader.
In recent world, readers are thought to have changed both their view and the writers therefore having to make good writings in order to attract the readers. Some of the strategies used in this writing include but not limited to fast pace writings. Due to the change of the culture to being too busy, readers need something that is brief but rich of content, a plot that doesn’t drag shorter sentences and even paragraphs. This is because of the busy schedules of the readers.
Another strategy is the action packed. This is the need for wild and thrilling adventures. This is due to the culture of thriving in action, living in danger situations, suspense and higher adrenaline rushes.
Emotionally charged experiences are much preferred of late than the less emotional experiences. Every day challenges are much connected to the experiences encountered daily. This triggers the need for emotional issues to take a higher position in demand to read. We get to a better perspective of issues when we get to know how and what others feel for our joys. We therefore feel good to know what others are experiencing. The writer should bring the reader to reality by committing his or her heart and soul in the writing. Vivid emotions in which the readers can connect are crucial in writings today.
A writer should employ personal experiences, good application of facts and statistics to explain issues by use of rhetorical question to create suspense in the readers, application of the counter attack strategies, putting up challenges for the readers to solve and give their own view. The content itself should be catchy to the reader.
Fahnestock, Jeanne and Secor, Marie, (2004).A Rhetoric of Argument, McGraw Hill Higher Education. Chapter 3-5, pages 45-128.