Preparedness is a state in which there is actual readiness to respond to a disaster. On the other hand, response is the action taken after the crisis occurs.
Mitigation and Recovery
Mitigation lessens the effects of a disaster by putting in place pre-disaster actions. Additionally, in recovery, there is an activity to return important life support systems to the least standards of operation.
Construction and Financial incentives
Impediments to mitigation
Denying the existence of risk
Lack of political will
Preparedness is the state of building capacity in order to be ready to respond to an undesirable eventuality while planning is the process that ensures the disaster is managed well. Preparedness deals specifically with actions taken to support emergency management. Mitigation attempts to lessen effects through pre-disaster actions, e.g., disaster-resistant communities. The steps involved in the preparedness process are as follows; planning, organization and equipment, training, exercise, and eventually evaluation and improvement. Involving stakeholders ensures there is availability of funds and man power to assist in the preparedness and planning process.
Response is the action taken immediately after an emergency. The role of the first disaster attendants is rescuing and providing preliminary aid to the injured persons, reduce the impact of fires, as well as securing and monitoring the area of disaster. Importantly, they also start the restoration of order in order to ensure there are no more cases of injuries. In this regard, the mandates of first attendants are often detailed within the Community Emergency Plan which is developed and maintained by the local emergency managers. Volunteers provide food, shelter and clothing in the aftermath of a disaster. Poor communication will lead to human losses, poorly coordinated and perceived response can damage careers.
The ICS was mainly set up to come up with systems that aid in the planning and management of agencies that respond to disasters. Some of the most important management systems used by ICS include the command systems, operational installations, logistic-based systems, and financial tracking systems. The commander of disastrous incidents ensures that the incident is controlled and no more damage occurs in the area of the incident. In a single incident command the command authority is managed by one ICS, in the unified command authority is shared by two or more individuals while in an area command multiple incidents are handled by an ICS organization. Without an ICS the area of the incident will be in confusion hence it will take a long time to clear it up.