A government is the organization arms these are legislature, the judiciary, or the executive. All the nations of the world always need to have a form of government that will help them to avoid having anarchy. Democratic government is that the government that allows the citizens of a nation to manage their government either directly or through the elections of representatives’ .In contrasts the authoritarian government that does not allow direct participation of citizens. There are two major types of democratic governments; these are the presidential and the legislative systems.
The presidential system
The president in this system is the head of state as well the boss of the government. The powers of the president are usually balance against those powers that are given to the legislature. In most of the presidential systems, the legislature must debate to pass the various bills. The president signs the bills passed to become law and he has powers to prevent the bills from adorning law. The president in this system has the power to deploy military in most of the situation, but he does not have the powers to declare war. In this system, the executive branch exists and presides separately from the legislature. The executive arm is accountable to the legislature and in the normal circumstance dismisses it (Berrick, 123).
The president does not propose bills, but he can veto the legislature and if the majority of the legislature vote for that bills it overrides the veto. The head of state usually has a fixed term in office. Election in this system is done at specific times and cannot be triggered by the legislature through the votes of confidence. The executive branch is always unipersonal. The members of the cabinet who appointed by the president serves at his pleasure, but they usually implement the executive and legislature policies. The president is the head off the executive at the same time head of government.
The parliamentary system
In this system of government, both the legislature and the executive are interconnected thus the executive is held accountable by the legislature. In this system, the prime minister and head of government are different persons the head of government is one of the members of the legislature, and the prime minister is a ceremonial seat. The president in this system is elected by the members of the legislature, and that mean that the party with most legislative member can win the presidency or at times the seat of prime minister.
Comparison between parliamentary and presidential system
Differences between presidential system and parliamentary governance
In the presidency, the president is voted in by citizens, and election is done at specific times of which he serves his term, whereas, in parliamentary governance, the prime minister is elected by the members of the legislature. It means that, in a parliamentary system, the head of state that is referred to as the prime minister is elected by the patty having majority members in the house.
The president leads the government as well as the executive in a presidential system while, in the other case, the head of government is not the same person as who heads the executive.
In the presidential system, the executive arm is independent and it is not accountable to the legislature hence some collision may arise from the two arm While in the parliamentary system the executive and the legislature are inseparable hence the executive is accountable to the legislature. In this system conflict of the two arms are not common.
The debate styles also differ in the two systems. In the presidential system, the legislature uses their right to prolong speeches and hence this delays the legislative function, whereas in a parliamentary system they always call for ending in the debate, so that voting begins.
There is no coalition in the presidency system of government since there is nothi9ng in this system that may provide for an individual politician and their political parties, whereas in a parliamentary system coalition is common because member of the legislature with the majority party gain (Berrick, 165).
Similarities between parliamentary and presidency system
In both the presidential and parliamentary system, the chief executive officer can be removed from the office by the legislature. The parliamentary government the prime minister can lose his seat if members of Parliament pass a vote of no confidence While, in the the presidential system, the members of the legislature can vote to impeach the head of government from the office (Hobart, 35).
Advantages of parliamentary system
- In the parliamentary governance bill are easily passed. Members of parliament do no have the right to argue for long hence the arguments can be stopped, and voting is done.
- The parliamentary system has attractive features in terms of ethnically, racially and mostly ideologically unlike the presidential system where power is given to only one person.
- The power in a parliamentary system is evenly spread.
- Researches by recent world report have always associated the parliamentary system with less corruption.
Disadvantages parliamentary system
- The lack of a definite calendar for the election can result to abuse in the system since some leaders may want to stay forever in the leadership posts.
- People who may have support of citizen are at times denied the opportunity of becoming prime ministers.
Advantages of presidential system
- The public is allowed to exercise their right of voting by choosing the leaders they want.
- Power separation between legislature and executive hence they monitor each other
- Changes can be enacted faster by the president
- There is stability since the president has a fixed term in office unlike the prime minister that can be kicked out any time.
Disadvantage presidential system
Member of Parliament takes long times arguing and hence there are delays passing of legislation.
The parliamentary system is more democratic in that decision of the legislation is made and voting conducted to pass them. A single individual makes the presidential governments decision that the head of government. If citizen notice that the executive is not functioning they remove them from office. Votes of no confidence by the member of the legislature who represent the public. The other advantage is that the minority member of the state may have the opportunity to assume the seat of prime minister unlike what is the case in the presidential system where majority community always assumes power (Hobart, 58).
I can conclude by saying that the parliamentary system is more effective and less discriminative since decision making involves a large number of persons. All the members of the legislature participate toward the process of voting to pass a bill. The decisions that are made involve a large number of people unlike in the system of presidency.
Berrick, Cathleen A. Appointment and Qualifications of U.s. Marshals. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 2003. Print.
Buchanan, Bruce. Presidential Power and Accountability: Toward a Presidential Accountability System. New York: Routledge, 2013. Print.
Legal Acts, Forms and Methods of Public Goverment in Georgia. International Black Sea University, 2010. Print.
Parliamentary Museum Fact Sheets. Hobart: Tasmanian Paliamentary Library, 2006. Print.