The developmental psychological is the study of changes that occur in the bodies of human beings during their lifetime and mainly deal on the part of the children and the infants. The premature birth and the development of ethnicity identity are part of the fields studied in science and fall over the course of development psychology.
Development of ethnic identity
Reason for choosing the topic
I have chosen the topic of identity because it relates to the behavior and thinking which is observed in the society. Development of social identity is a significant problem as enables one to understand the identity as related to ethnicity. Ethnicity is a reality in the society, and most of the people are victims of ethnicity (Hurlock, 2008). Understanding how ethnicity came into being in the society is a crucial think. When trying to understand the development of ethnic identity, one is faced with various questions that are significant for understanding the topic. Through the topic, I get to understand the adverse impacts of ethnicity in the society. The question is important as it relates to the behavior I have observed in my family. Furthermore, through the topic I understand the adverse effects of ethnicity in the society. The topic is thus important to me as I can understand more about ethnic identities.
Critical reviewing of the journal-Group, Threat and Children’s Racial Prejudice
Aims of the Journal
The journal I have chosen is the journal talking about the threat, norms and children’s racial prejudice. The journal is important in the paper because it critically analyzes the development of ethnic identity and its importance in the society. The aims of the journal are to assess predictions from social identity development theory (SIDT) (Nesdale, Nesdale, & Drew, 2005). The argument concerns the children's racial/ethnic prejudice. Therefore, through critically reading the journal, I understand the reason for children taking the ethnic identity negatively. The journal also reviews the ethnic influence and attitudes towards ethnic identity. The reasons why ethnicity is found in the society is also discussed in the journal. Through studying all these, the reader can understand the importance of ethnic groups in the society and why those ethnic groups are found in such societies. Furthermore, the norms and exclusions of the development identity are critically discussed and analyzed in the group.
The study was carried out in the year 2004. In order for the study to achieve the intended results, it employed different methods to carry out the study. The study identified 197 Anglo-Australian children whose ages range from seven years to nine years. The study was carried out in a group. The children were grouped according to their norms of inclusion or exclusion. The groups were either threatened or not threatened. They were placed in different groups which either composed of ethnic groups. When the children were placed in different groups, it was easy to get the results of the study) (Nesdale, Nesdale, & Drew, 2005). Furthermore, the methods were used to carry out the study also made the study accessible, and the results could easily be obtained.
In the study, the survey was employed to carry out the study. Children were studied in order to understand the ethnicity identity (Hurlock, 2008). The survey aimed at establishing the reason children behave in different ways and according to the ethnic groups where these children belong.
The study also applied questionnaire as a method of collecting data. Children and their parents were supplied with a structured questionnaire. They were expected to answer the questions honestly. Through such relevant questionnaire, the easy was quickly carried out. The respondent was expected to answer questions on the way they view ethnicity in the society. The filled questionnaire was later analyzed to understand the reasons that were stated by the respondents and thus understand the topic further.
The results of the study have shown that the peer groups have a significant impact on the children who are of five or six years. The effects of peer groups on children are an influence on norms and attitudes. It was found out that the peer groups in most cases have an impact on the children's patterns and the way these children view the ethnicity. It was revealed that when children are affected different peer groups, they create negative mindset about the ethnicity. Such children grow up regarding the ethnicity as negatively) (Nesdale, Nesdale, & Drew, 2005).. The children would take the ethnicity as negative thing in the society. Such children would thus see other people from different groups as enemies whom should be associated with. In cases, such children grow up with negative attitudes, and then they might create problems in future. Ethnic issues will be witnessed in the society.
It was also found out that the norm of out-group prejudice influence group members. This involves feeling or hatred. These forms of prejudice make the members of a particular group see other members as a threat in the society. They might engage in negative confrontation with people from such groups. There was an indication whereby some groups saw themselves as superpower in the society. In such cases, therefore, the group that viewed itself as superpower undermine the other groups as they saw them as unimportant. The intergroup study found out that there is a stereotype whereby one group see themselves as important and superior to the society than other ethnic groups. The issue was seen as a source of threat to the society and thus could inflict hatred in such a society. It was found out that such issues affect the children in that society and thus grow up with a negative attitude towards other groups.
Areas of further research
Although the research is significant as it elicits understanding of the development of ethnicity identity, some gaps still exist in such areas and require more research to be undertaken. The areas that require more study include impacts of negative ethnicity in the society. This is because the ethnicities that exist negatively have an influence on the growth of the society (Hurlock, 2008). It is also of significant importance to study this area because it has adverse effects and if people are not taught on how to gap such negative influence, it might not be possible for such a society to teach its children to grow up positively and become important people in future. The reason most people grow with a negative attitude towards other communities is because of the bad teachings they are inflicted on while they are still young. If research is carried out in this area, then it would be easy to address those areas.
A study of development and ethnic identity is crucial as it elicits an understanding of the ethnicity. Ethnic groups in the society develop with different attitudes. When children grow up with negative attitudes, they will influence the growth of such a society.
Psychological effects of premature birth
There are so many cases of the premature birth around our community; most of them who survive have the high affinity of mental hilliness when they grow to be adults as compared to normal babies. From the requirements from the medical fields, it is always advisable to help the premature babies to develop in the uterus for as long as they can. The fact of prematureness lasts into adulthood. Nevertheless, by caring them, we tend to experience improvements in their mentality. My research from the articles shows that Pre-term birth generates a stress reaction, that triggers higher levels of the hormone cortical, which is vital for controlling metabolism, immune response, vascular tone, and homeostasis (Friedman 2006). When comparing cortical levels in the adults who were born pre-term against those born full-term and checking if cortical levels amongst adults who were the sickest as premature infants are elevated than those less medically and neurologically compromised. Premature babies experience changes throughout their lifetime
The primary objectives of the article is to design a method used to identify the pattern that will act to protect the birth of the premature babies, and the pattern is referred to the cooperative model. Another one is controlling pattern that plays the role in developing and controlling behavior of the already born premature baby. The preventive patterning he made to be prevailing in the community. With these patterns, they tend to increase the developmental and social-emotional outcomes. It helped in identifying the great impact of these on the dyadic patterns on the behavior of the infants and the results of growing and development (Friedman 2006) . The articles purpose is to test and examine any effect of the dynamic patterns of the behavior of the growing child and the development changes and results. The other objective is to compare the premature child and the normal child throughout their growth stages to identify any positive or the negative changes. The premature child and check the difference if any (Music 2011). The symptoms are noted and identify if there are any improvements perceived after using the designed patterns for further recommendations on using the models. Once the premature child is identified, they are taken to field to examine their mental capacity in capturing the information; it helps in determining their mental capacity.The method applied
The methods used are the cooperative pattern and the preventive pattern. The pattern involved taking the sample of few women with premature babies and then taking these babies in the environments connected with the two patterns. The normal babies alongside the premature babies were taken for study. Adults also were taken for class examination tests to determine their mentality. The results are then kept in the record book for further analysis before commenting on the effectiveness of the designs. The data was collected during the hospital period, follow-up visits and interviews for mothers where recommended. The class tests for the premature kids were conducted to determine their mentality
The children who are born prematurely tend to have mental hilliness or abnormality as compared to the children born normal. There is high standard deviation of mentality between the children are born normal and those born prematurely. The variance of those who are premature but they received care is big as compared to those who did not receive care. When comparing cortical levels in the adults who were born pre-term against those born full-term and checking if cortical levels amongst adults who were the sickest as premature infants are elevated than those less medically and neurologically compromised. Premature babies who undergo care experience changes throughout their lifetime.Conclusions
The children born premarital tend to die and for those who survive have the high affinity to mental hilliness during their adult stage. They do not capture information as compared to a child who was born normal. There is the relationship between the time of birth and the affinity to mental hilliness, those born after seven weeks of pregnancy tend to have the higher affinity than those born at the eight week of pregnancy. Also, the children born with premature hilliness and kept under care shows the positive difference in their mentality as compared to those of the same class who don’t receive or undergo the care.Limitation
Their limitation of the research lies upon the biasedness of the study since it was not grounded on the large population. It should have also been carried by the independent group (unbiased group), unlike the psychologist researchers who are not concerned in the care of the patients under the study. The errors due to discrepancy also contribute to the limitation of research since the date exact report will not be available (Music 2011).Areas for further research
Gross, F. (2009). Citizenship and ethnicity: The growth and development of a democratic multiethnic institution. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Hurlock, E. B. (2008). Developmental psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Nesdale, D., Nesdale, & Drew, D. (2005). Group norms, threat, and children's racial prejudice. Blackwell Pub.
Stokes, M. (1994). Ethnicity, identity, and music: The musical construction of place. Oxford, UK: Berg.
Beaman, N. (2011). Pearson's comprehensive medical assisting: Administrative and clinical competencies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Friedman, S. L., & Sigman, M. (2011). The Psychological development of low-birthweight children. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Pub.
Music, G. (2011). Nurturing natures: Attachment and children's emotional, sociocultural, and brain development. Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press.