One of the leading trends in the economic theory of crime and punishment has become an economic analysis of organized crime. Prohibition era has led to an increase in crime and the formation of a huge number of organized criminal groups of black and significant enrichment of crime. "The condemnation of blackness" examines what constitutes a crime as a socio-economic institution, what are the economic characteristics of its functioning, how it affects society and what are the laws of its evolution. The segregation of the black population has forced many of them to go to the North. From 1913 to 1919 about half a million African Americans moved to a residence in the city of the North and this migration is not dried up until the Second World War. Legislative initiatives, drug trafficking and gambling directly create and reproduce crime and crime as its natural consequence.
Society with rigid class and caste structure can not give all members equal chances to advance. Only when society declares common symbols of success for the entire population, limiting the access of many people to a recognized means of achieving these characters, create conditions for anti-social behavior. Khalil Gibran Muhammad trying to explain the high crime rate in some areas of Chicago, he conducted a number of studies have found that as a result of that, in some quarters of the city crime rates remained stable for many years, despite the changes in the ethnic composition of the population. The researcher concluded that criminal behavior can be passed from one generation to another. It means that a black youth living in areas of high crime, learns criminal behaviors. Moreover, when these areas enter the representatives of other ethnic groups, their children deviant behaviors are transmitted from the local youth. "The condemnation of blackness" explains how policy restrictions make trade legal, albeit dangerous drugs in the most profitable in the world and the most organized illegal market. At its core, drug prohibition has been by informal American cultural colonization. The courts almost automatically ruled in favor of the employers against the unions, creditors against debtors, railway companies against farmers who are dissatisfied with the withdrawal of their lands. These cardinal leading objectively existing contradictions of socio-economic formations cannot be removed as long as one or other formation there. They regularity give rise to crime, realized in contradictory processes and phenomena of the sociological level. Internal corporate standards mafia developed by the same laws as the official right. Observed behavior typically draws only the established custom, completes the norms of education process. The practice, in turn, there is always a reaction to a specific social need, the external form of self-organization mechanisms of action.
The rules of the criminal world allow to provide control over the activities of the members of a mafia clan, as a systemic factor. Partly criminals innovations change and regulatory standards of society, provide alternative community interaction with the ruling. Institutions would not be as significant factors of public life, though their influence was limited to the sphere of normative regulation. An important role is played by their value, a symbolic component. This has led to huge profits criminal groups. The country has received the widest dissemination of illegal production, smuggling and transportation of alcoholic beverages. There were numerous underground organizations bootleggers, earnings which account for millions of dollars.
These laws not only did not seek to regulate the trafficking of drugs, but also for the first time in the history of drug addicts turned into criminals. In the 1890s in American cities the illegal opium smoking social outcasts and rebels changed minors illegal cocaine. Harrison Law on Drugs, adopted in 1914, was the basis for the prohibition of drugs in the United States. By the early 1920ies the concept of addiction has become modified: previously thought that the victims of drug addiction - are from the middle class, accustomed to drugs accidentally as a result of their medical use. Policy of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics contributed to the growth of the criminal world and its subculture. After the repeal of Prohibition given criminals new goods to trade on the black market. Despite the fact that some people who use drugs can control their addiction, family and keeping good-paying jobs, political orthodoxy imposed on the official America's role all addicts degrading and dying creatures. This role required a public opinion of the country. Generated Garrison Law and policy related to drug addiction were brutal and extremely unproductive. This policy has created new opportunities for illegal income, and as a result of the rigid system of regulation has led to the creation of an international network of illegal shipments. Where had laws prohibiting or restricting the importation of drugs, illegal vendors have used all available opportunities. However, the policy of drug prohibition proposed by the United States and supported by the European powers, led to the flourishing of crime. Large-scale smuggling of dangerous drugs is conducted in many parts of the world. Thus, the 1920s became the model of the international drug crime for the rest of the century.
Thus, the author developed the theory of differential association, which is based on the ideas of symbolic interactionism and emphasizes the role of social interaction in the formation of attitudes and actions of people. According of Muhammad, the black population are offenders to the extent that they belong to the environment that form deviant ideas, motivations and methods. Such individuals can learn how to use and take illegal drugs, or steal and then sell stolen goods. The earlier start of the individual contacts with the criminogenic environment, more often, intensity and duration of these contacts will be, the higher the probability that such an individual will also be a perpetrator. But in the process involved is not a simple imitation. Deviant behavior is acquired on the basis of not only a role model, but also of learning; very much it depends on what it is and from whom they learn to individuals.
"The condemnation of blackness" shows how to configure the different bands, but mostly they were independent of each other and were of local or territorial. The impetus for their association served as adopted by 18 amendment to the constitution to ban the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages, as well as disputes with other ethnic criminal groups led to the nationalization of organized crime. Black gang refused to associate with other criminal groups, in particular, with the Irish and Jewish gangs. Most crime in view of the close proximity to the crime fight against crime crisis in the system. It found expression in contradictory criminal law, criminal procedure, penal law and other branches of law, implementing crime prevention. In the Prohibition era Black gangsters received basic income from bootlegging, but at the same time continued to control prostitution and began to develop gambling (illegal gambling) and drug trafficking. Money laundering enables criminal organizations to infiltrate the legitimate economy, but at the same time it is the most vulnerable link in the criminal production, the key to combating organized crime. In addition, the mafia usually combines two areas of economic activity: the illegal production, which earns more money, and legal proceedings, where the money is "laundered".
Thus we can say that the problem of the causes of crime is central to criminology. That is a decision of this problem determines the scientific content of criminological theory and its practical orientation. The variety of manifestations of crime, its links with many aspects of public life necessitates the classification of its reasons. The correct choice of classification criteria is of great scientific and practical importance. As the most important causes of crime and offenses are the phenomena of social and psychological problems - namely, the crime deformed social and individual psychology, contrary to generally accepted principles of international, constitutional and criminal law. Thus, criminal organizations should be regarded as not only criminal firms, not just a shadow government, but criminal fraternities and community-based.
Muhammad, Khalil Gibran. The condemnation of blackness. Harvard University Press, 2010.