20.2 Albert Beveridge, "The March of the Flag" (1898)
1. How does Beveridge characterize America's proper role in the world?
He characterizes America as a land that can feed and clothe the whole world. He portrays America as a parent to the other nations of the world. In his description of America in relation to the world he also explains the nature of the people in the country as people from the most masterful blood of history. Also under religious background he mentions that the people in America are hand chosen by God. All these references indicate the superior nature of America from the speech.
2. How does Beveridge answer opponents of American Expansionism?
He shows how wide the American coastline would enclose the entire countries in Europe. This shows how wide the territory of America is wide.
20.3 William Graham Sumner, from "On Empire and the Philippines" (1898)
1. On what grounds does Sumner base his opposition to American imperialism? Is his argument convincing?
Sumner in his speech lists out a number of other different countries with their different pretense and exposes their true nature and intent hence his argument stands out different that America should be different mean what it says not pretend like these other countries
20.4 William McKinley "Decision on the Philippines" (1900)
1. How does President McKinley justify his decision to retain control of the Philippines after the Spanish-American War?
He claimed that that could be the show of cowardice and also it could be dishonorable. And also leaving them on their own was not an option because they were not yet stable for self-governance. Also, another reason was that he could not give them to France or Germans because of their financial competitions. Some of these reasons were financially motivated while others were as a result of egoism.
2. How might President McKinley's audience (expansionist Methodist ministers and missionaries) have influenced this speech?
Among the final reason, that President gave had a connection with Christianity. This shows the involvement of the Methodist ministry and the missionaries. The reason was that there was nothing left for them to do apart from taking the Filipinos educating them, to uplift them and also to civilize them. In the whole process to Christianize them and be there for them was the other reason. This sounded d less political but more Christian way for the president. This was a show of influence by the missionaries and the Methodist ministers.
20.5 The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904)
1. How does Roosevelt justify the necessity of his new corollary to the Monroe Doctrine? Is his argument compelling?
The United States justify the new corollary that it was a means to avoid the decolonization of the Western hemisphere by the Europeans. The United States acted like a policeman and monitored that this did not happen. This was seen in the incident in Venezuela and its creditors which if was to be left alone would have sparked into an invasion by the Europeans. The United States intervention in the western hemisphere nations so that they could honor their creditors’ deals. This argument by Roosevelt is very much compelling, and its effects can be realized. It had an impact on most of the nations which were involved such as Cuba, Haiti, and Nicaragua.
2. How would citizens of Latin American countries likely react to the Roosevelt Corollary?
The reaction of the citizen of Latin Americans misunderstood the whole situation because we see that the United States used force in some of these nations hence the citizens could not differentiate between the two the Europeans and the United States. The force the colonizers or the creditors would apply to them was the same force the united state applied to them hence the citizen saw no difference between the two. For them to realize a difference the united state would have used a different strategy to ensure that these countries did not fail there creditors but the use of force as they did.
CH 22 THE PROGRESSIVE ERA
18.1 John Spargo, from "The Bitter Cry of the Children" (1906)
1. Describe the work conditions of the boy miners described by Spargo. Why would young boys accept this grueling, dangerous work?
Spargo says that the boys worked for continuous hours of more than 14 hours which is overworking of the young boys which were not a good thing. The boys also worked in these dark mines in addition to the harsh working conditions. Also, in the mines, the boys were prone to so many accidents cuts, broken or crushed fingers. Also, the boys would get caught accidentally by the machinery at work. The main reason these children used to work is for the pay that they were being paid which was very small as low as sixty cents a day. Also the exploitation of these children was another problem. The children operated in different post from one to another at and at their age this was not a good thing even for physical health. No risk measures were taken for these children hence they could die in those mines.
2. How could mine owners in good conscience hire such young boys for this type of labor?
The main reason the mine owners hired the young boys is due to the cheap labor. They paid these boys very small fee which if it were to be compared to that of a mature person the pay would have been different. Also, the children were easy to control and instill fear in them hence over working them. Also as per the law of West Virginia boys over the age of 12 were eligible to be employed and on top of that, they could work during the daytime and the night time too. These are some of the few things that these mine owners exploited. Also, the boys would be quickly switched from one work station to the next one with less strain as compared to others. The profit margins the mine owners got with the labor from the children made them encourage this type of labor and it was also easy to entice this boys to work.
21.1 Ida M. Tarbell, from the History of the Standard Oil Company (1904)
1. According to this excerpt from Tarbell's book, what accounted for John D. Rockefeller’s early success in the oil industry?
2. How does Tarbell differentiate between Rockefeller's personal life and behavior on one hand, and his business dealings with the other?
Rockefeller is this one person described as this one very patient person. He has been described as the most patient person and he had the best strategies when it came to business opportunity. But when we come to the other hand in the business field he was this aggressive person. His personal life and business life differed so much but still some traits in someone do not change no matter the circumstance.
21.5 Jane Addams, from Twenty Years at Hull House (1910)
1. How does Addams see the settlement house as filling a need for both the higher and lower ends of society?
Settlement houses should create the correlation and coexistence between the neighbors despite the race or any other difference that may be setting them apart. They should treat each other in silence until a sense of interest between them grows.
2. Does Addams see the settlement house as promoting a particular ideological point of view? Explain.