Social perception is considered a less potent technique that helps in increasing self-efficiency and subsequent behaviors when the social cognitive theory is involved in comparison to personal experience and modeling. Similarly, social pressure, in subjective norm forms has not linked consistently to PA through research that has been framed and operationalized using reasoned action and planned behavior (Rhodes et al., 2016). The review evaluates parental PA encouragement and also finds the social pressure that is unrelated to child PA behaviors. Parental attitudes and perceptions received attentions yet all findings demonstrated null effects. Parental perceptions that involve PA may not manifest itself in actual support for child activity, so it is clear why there might be no relationships with child PA.
Davison et al. (2013) review the concept of parenting and family cohesion about child PA, and he concludes that parenting styles involve two “warmth” by two “control” classifications that form four possible categories: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful. Davidson, reports that three studies evaluated this parenting style structure without any evidence it relates to child PA. On the energy balance equation, under activity side, the study reveals an interactional consistency in vigorous psychical activity levels between parenting and children aged 7-12. However, a much stronger relationship is observed between parents and children inactivity levels which suggest that children’s participations in physical activities supported their parents, even though in necessary, is not sufficient. Parenting modeling views their regular physical exercise may also be needed.
More broadly, greater insight is necessary for parental modeling practice of dietary and activity-related behaviors. Within consumer research, there is the discussion that involves parental modeling, as a primary procedure by which children learn, yet very little is evident concerning what is specifically being modeled and the cues children use to either accept or reject what they observe.
Davison, K. K., Mâsse, L. C., Timperio, A., Frenn, M. D., Saunders, J., Mendoza, J. A., & Trost, S. G. (2013). Physical activity parenting measurement and research: challenges, explanations, and solutions.Childhood Obesity, 9(s1), S-103.
Rhodes, R. E., Spence, J. C., Berry, T., Deshpande, S., Faulkner, G., Latimer-Cheung, A. E., & Tremblay, M. S. (2016). Understanding action control of parental support behavior for child physical activity. Health Psychology, 35(2), 131.