Coontz and Folbre cite that 1996 welfare legislation aims to promote marriage and some cities provide bonuses to couples (Risman 18). Some legislators request congress to divert project fund to marriage programs to increase the rates of marriage. The current administration increases the spending of marriage to ensure those languishing in poverty get married. Policymakers voice that failure to marry results in child poverty (Risman 22).Coontz and Folbre give evidence that marriage has social and economic benefits. The married couples ensure children benefit from a higher standard of living (Risman 23). This plan to reform the marriage fails to bear fruit. Coontz says that do not marry in America is often due to poverty and economic insecurity not child poverty (Risman 23). In essence, single families are less likely to suffer poverty. Statistics show that America has a third of poor children that live in two-parent families. America experiences inequality of income distribution across the nation. The single and married families are prone to high cost of taking care of children regardless of income distribution. Secondly, legislation is not sound enough to marry partners off and ensure their stability. Marriage has other factors that ensure its stability since the partners must be able to assist each other and solve problems. Poverty can discourage the formation of marriages since economic effects do contribute to social norms.
England and Edin elaborate that a third of children in America are born by the unmarried parents (Risman 124). The low-income people have children outside wedlock due to harsh economic standards. This research is surprising because the low- income unmarried couples postpone marriage but do not postpone childbearing (Risman 127). The low-income group believes they will marry each other once they stabilize economically. England and Edin attest to the fact that most children in /America belong to the unmarried parents (Risman 128). Eighty per cent of unmarried couples are in romantic relationships prior to the child being born (Risman 128). Most fathers in this kind of relationships offer suggestion of marriage in future. The marriage fails to take off between the unmarried couples with children. England and Edin offer evidence that most unmarried couples do not use contraceptives in their relationships (Risman 130). The unmarried use contraceptives during the initial stages in a relationship and once the relationship becomes serious they stop. Most couples give excuses of economic stability in their failure to get married. This research is surprising since the unmarried couples were aware of their economic situations when they initiate the relationship. The low- income couples experience many emotional and economical issues that lead to break-ups. Women cite that men hardly spend time with them. Additionally, the issue of child discipline creates conflict in a relationship. The low-income couples are prone to infidelity issues that threaten a relationship. Dads’ involvement with taking care of children depends on employment basis. Men that have employment leave the work of scrutiny of the children to the mums.
Lareau’s article that extensively studies six black families and six white families makes the following revelations. Lareau explains that the social position of a child’s parents matters for occupational and school success (Risman 59). The middle- class families of black and white applies similar techniques to develop their children talents through training and scrutinizing schoolwork. Lareau says that the cultural logics of a child have merit and middle- class strategy bears fruits in the learning institutions (Risman 60). Lareau’s data has 10- years’ old children from the black and white families. These children explain the effects of inter class interaction at home. The Middle class aggressively nourish the children’s talents by engaging the children in different activities. The working- class and poor parents provide the environment for children growth and development and leave them to pursue their own experiences. Lareau cites that race has a less impact on the children than the social class (Risman 62). Both black and white children from the Middle- class show a sense of entailment by the behavior of the parents. The power of social class grows with time. Once children grow and are in a position to make their own decisions and the actions of parents do not matter. The work of Lareau helps one understand the path of children to determine their future (Risman 64).
Green asserts that homosexuals have a human capacity to endure love relationships (Risman 199). Green informs that all couples regardless of sexual orientation face similar situations of self-acceptance before receiving or offering love to the other partner. The heterosexual and homosexual require an external person to accept them (Risman 199). Green gives evidence that demographic and psychological diversity within same-sex and heterosexual is not logically opposite (Risman 199). All relationships have similar factors that can predict the life of relationship in the future. Green says that same-sex couples suffer the challenge of antigay prejudice. In this light, the gay people undergo constant discrimination in the society that pressurizes them. This often provides a stigmatized identity in the society that is hurtful (Risman 198). America has not fully legalized same-sex marriage. In some countries, the practice is highly punishable.
Risman, Barbara J.. Families as They Really Are . New York, NY: Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc, 2009. Print.
Risman, Barbara J.. Families as they really are. New York: W.W. Norton, 2010. Print.