The Art of System Architecting by Rechtin (2009) infers that system Architecture “is the art or science of building and constructing system for human use.” Experts with design knowledge are the source of decisions in architecture. Brooks says that architecture is the art of determining the needs of a user then designing a structure that meets a client specification with no technological and economic constrains. Architecture has to include engineering factors to ensure the design is economically feasible. The word system imply on the conceptual structure and functional behavior of the interrelated components from data flows, logical design, and the physical implementation. System architecture represents a framework to perform detail design and the specific of system design.
1. System Architecting Approaches
If I am the Chief architect of the new California high speed, I will use the following approaches based on what I have learned in class. The following three methods are applicable heuristic, Expert system, and Intelligent Architecture. I can use the Heuristics approach to evaluate desirable progression from general to specific. The desirable progression of the heuristics emanates from descriptive qualitative to domain specific metrics. I can apply qualitative metrics by partitioning the heuristics. The second approach is the exhibit that requires integrated system to depict intelligent behavior. Intelligent railway system consists of complex integrated control systems that have sensor and data fusion. I can use this approach when I need to use a new operational style. Expert system architecture allows the user to interact through an interface with menus. This architecture approach relies on expert knowledge to solve a problem. An expert system has an explanation subsystem that permit a program to specify the reason to the user. The expert system has separate domain specific information to represent reasoning and techniques in use.
2. Role of heuristics in system architecting
Models, Heuristics, and Metaphors are models that help clarify a problem. Each tool uses the principle of abstraction and past wisdom. Heuristics is one of the tools of a system architect that uses abstraction principles and experiences to clarify a problem. The tools, which consist of information assist in evaluating and giving purpose to plan. This tool helps to reduce complexity faced by the architect since it brings past knowledge within the phase of complexity in the problem. According to Rechtin, the attributes of heuristic include easiness to rationalize, well timed, and sensible in the original context. Some of the descriptive heuristics include “simplify, simplify, simplify” that concurs with Murphy’s Law on the concept of “if it can fail it will.” This heuristic stands to ensure no defects and reinforces status quo. Another applicable heuristic is an insight is worth one thousand analyses. This statement acts so as to ensure that architects do not meet disruptions arising out of science in architecting. Additionally, when you add people to a late project this will delay the project much further. Architects must refrain from scientific concepts since they deal with arts. In portioning, one can choose independent factors to avoid low external complexity. One must choose a system that aids communication between other partitions.
3. Structuring, aggregation, and decomposition elements in architecting a complex design
The aggregation of decomposed system function can interact with system elements that requirement are those associated with the functions of the aggregated system. Decomposition entails an algorithm based on top down approach. One visualizes the system in terms of highest-level mission to decompose systematically having detailed abstractions. Data-oriented decompositions apply the heuristics of system architecture. The behavioral and physical structuring characteristics contain direct analogs that consist of aggregation, decomposition, and minimal communications. Large data models demand high-integrated structures with minimal patterns as well as limited interfaces. Stability in the coupling and abstraction levels suggests resistance to change. The attribute of stability depends on the ability to accommodate the ripple effect brought about by the propagation of change.
4. DODAF Products
OV-1: High-Level Operational Concept Graphic this product has a high-level graphic and textual description of operational concept. The Power Grid of United States faces obsolescence and demands transformation to connect the nation to an affordable, reliable, and efficient electric power. The country has to adapt to one that has the capacity to address the country’s future needs while providing a safe and secure power.
OV-2: Operational Node Connectivity the operational nodes, connectivity, and the information exchange lie on the nodes.
SV-1: Systems/Service Interface Description this product identifies the system nodes, system items, and interconnections, within and between nodes. Systems and services view depict graphical and textual product with interconnections to support the DOD. SV products focus on specific physical systems with geographical locations. The SV-1 portrays system nodes and resident of the nodes to support the OV-2 operational nodes.
5. The challenge of system architect of a railway system
A system architect constructing a railway system will face different challenges such as the issue of ensuring the work remains focused to the underlying vision. There is the challenge of identifying and corresponding to service providers. This challenge can be addressed by using service rationalization and service consolidation. There is the challenge of addressing crucial needs of stakeholders qualitatively by observing priority. Some of the details need up front considerations. System architect encounters the challenges of supporting engineering decisions, managing change, as well as complexity in the design. It is not easy for a system architect to describe an architectural baseline and finding opportunities of synergetic effect to permit business integration. The chief architect must have a flexible road map that can be implemented to overcome the occurrence of obstacles.
6. Approach of dealing with complexity in an architecting project
One can use performance-oriented gauge to reduce cost and improve reliability on a complex system. Architecture-based adaption can represent user tasks in three areas
Detection: this is the ability to detect the dynamic property of a complex distributed system.
Resolution: This is the ability to determine the observed system property that violate critical design assumptions.
Adaptation: This is the ability to automate system adaptation in response to violation of the assumptions catered during design.
7. Architected solutions based on the DODAF artifacts
The Joint Capability Integration and Development System (JCIDS) ensures military people receive capabilities to enable them execute their mission with success JCIDS has collaborative process to utilize joint concepts.
The Defense Acquisition System (DAS) this system uses joint structures and integrated architectures to maintain the Armed Forces to enable them achieve success in their security operations.
Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and execution works to identify the touch point of the architecture and the PPBE process.