The world is constantly developing and growing. Similarly, the population of the world is increasing day by day. The elevation in population correspondingly increases the demand of resources and requirements needed by the people. Consequently, a scarcity in resources is observed due to this increase in population. The people eventually are left undernourished and suffer from malnutrition as the particular deficiency among the resources is found in the provision of adequate food to the people. Evidently, FAO 2014 has reported the number of people which is approximately 805 million who have been facing the insufficient food supply. Subsequently, the shortage of food and malnutrition affects the entire world progress. The analysis for the food shortage revealed that the poor means of agriculture is the root cause of inadequate food supply to the world. In addition to this, the effects of global warming on the growth of crops, and reduction of farmlands for the rise of urbanization makes the supply of enough food difficult. The yield of food crops does not makeup the needs of the growing number of people. Therefore, it is required to increase the yield of food crops. The possible solution drawn for this issue was to develop Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). Genetically Modified Organisms are the products of agriculture which undergo genetic alterations hence, better and elevated quantity of food crops is yielded which can become sufficient for the increasing number of the people. On the other hand, an argument has been raised about the safety of human health and environment due to the use of GMO. Researchers have proposed the hazardous effects of consuming GMO, therefore, the utilization of GMO products is uncertain.
The concern in the use of GMO lies in the genetic alterations which the plants undergo in order to yield more quantity of food products. Due to these genetic alterations, several health problems are raised. The GMO consists of the genetic part from plants, bacteria or animals; therefore, the reaction to such genes within the human body is not known. Keeping in consideration the ill-effects by the use of GMO, the main outcome of their consumption is the development of cancer in a human body. Cancer mostly results in GMO utilization along with some minor allergies. Moreover, GMO affects a pregnant woman in many different ways. The new-born child can be deformed due to the GMO use (Touyz, 2013). On the other hand, GMO can be responsible for the development of infertility among the women. In addition to this, GMO requires the herbicides and pesticides in more quantity. Consequently, these chemicals can be consumed by the human along with the food. Among different herbicides, glyphosate is the one which is widely used and is responsible for many hazardous effects to the human body. Glyphosate disturbs the intestinal bacteria in the body of a human. Since, intestinal bacteria are beneficial for digestion, the reduction in their number affects the digestion of food. Moreover, the absence of intestinal bacteria makes the opportunity available for the pathogens to attack and cause disease in the digestive tract of the human body (Shehata, 2013). Furthermore, the pesticides used for GMO production can enhance the chances of heart diseases, infertility, and cancer.
Genetic Modified Organisms are observed to produce allergens in the human body. The introduction of a new gene in the genetic makeup of the plant can cause the production of an intolerant allergen. In the US and Europe an increase in the incidents of peanuts allergy among the children was found which is predicted to be the adverse consequence of consumption of GMO. Similarly, in the Brazil, nuts into soybeans were banned due to the chance of the emergence of allergic reactions among the consumers (Grover et al., 2013). On the other hand, a gene added to the potato was lectin producing which was declared as toxic for the mammals. Therefore, these GMO potatoes can be harmful to the human body (Verma et al., 2011). In addition to this, the gene incorporated in the GMO plant contains an antibiotic gene as a selective marker. Therefore, the consumption of GMO can develop antibiotic resistance within the pathogens, and serious human diseases would be difficult to control in the absence of antibiotic sensitivity (Wegener, 2012). Moreover, the GMO can be less nutritious than the organic food crops so, the utilization of GMO foods will provide less benefit to the human body as compared to organic foods.
GMO have provided the benefit of sufficient food supply to the people. Conversely, GMO has also raised several environmental problems. The toxins produced by the GMO are generated to protect the crops from pest. However, the toxins become harmful to the safe insects as well. Consequently, the all types of insects including the pests are affected and thus, the process of pollination is hampered due to the death of insects involved in pollination. In addition to this. Hence, the accumulation of toxins in the soil makes it less effective for further plantation. The parts of plants may get into the water, and the toxins from such GMO plants can be added in the water thus, pollute the water. Consequently, polluted water becomes hazardous for the aquatic life and environment. Since, the GMO acquires more quantity if herbicides and pesticides, therefore, the elevation in the quantity of herbicides and pesticides pollute the environment. Subsequently, the harmful chemicals become part of the environment. A major problem can be raised by the GMO production which is the inability to control the weeds. The weeds breeding go through the cross-breed process if, the weeds cross-breeds with GMO plants containing herbicides resistance gene can enhance the production of superweed. These superweeds acquiring herbicide resistance gene are uncontrollably through traditional herbicides. Hence, weeds would cover the necessary land for cultivation. Moreover, it is possible that the pests may become resistant to the toxins produced by the GMO. Consequently, GMO would be attacked by the new pests and simultaneously, the production yield would be reduced. The GMO herbicide tolerant plants remain in the environment, and the harmful effects of their toxins persist as well. These toxins can cause harm to wildlife and human thus, disturbing the ecosystem. The co-existence of GMO crops and non-GMO crops is not possible as the presence of GMO contaminates the non-GMO crops. Consequently, the economic loss is faced as the organic or non-GMO crops are damaged. Moreover, the GMO plants might transfer the genetically modified traits to the other species as well through horizontal transfer. Such transfer of genetic alterations can increase the defected plants (Antoniou et al., 2012). Furthermore, the GMO foods and ingredients which are used in several food commodities are not labeled. This becomes a serious consequence as an individual susceptible to allergies caused by GMO foods is affected. The lack of differentiation between GMO and unmodified foods can be harmful to an individual who consumes the GMO food and becomes a victim of an allergy. However, the Food and Drug administration have approved that the food products utilizing GMO products and ingredients are not required to label them. On the contrary, such products must not be labeled GMO-free. Hence, an individual is unable to differentiate between the GMO and unmodified food items, therefore, can be at harm. The food products contain at least one ingredient which is produced by the GMO; therefore, the awareness should be raised among the people in order to change the regulations regarding the labeling. People should raise their concern for the provision of labeled food products. In this way, an individual is able to select the food which is suitable according to the allergies an individual can face.
In conclusion, the people should refrain from the use of GMO products. People should purchase the organic products and make other people aware of the ill-effects caused due to the GMO. Moreover, the researchers should indulge in the search of using the GMO with efficacy in order to reduce the harmful effects. The research on the utilization of GMO adequately for the production of food crops with less or no adverse effects should be carried out. All in all, the food items must be inspected for a seal of GMO products and avoided. In this way, the hazardous effects of GMO can be minimized.
Antoniou, Michael, Claire Robinson, and John Fagan. GMO Myths and Truths. Earth Open Source 47 (2012). Retrieved from http://responsibletechnology.org/media/docs/GMO_Myths_and_Truths_1.3b.pdf on 10th December 2014.
FAO. The State Of Food Insecurity In The World 2014. Food and agricultural organization of the United Nations. 2014. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/publications/sofi/2014/en/ on 10th December 2014.
Grover, Alka, Nida Ashhar, and Pranav Patni. Why genetically modified food need reconsideration before consumption? Journal of family medicine and primary care 3.3 (2014): pp. 188. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4209668/ on 10th December 2014.
Shehata, Awad A. The effect of glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro. Current microbiology 66.4 (2013): pp. 350-358. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23224412 on 10th December 2014.
Touyz, L. Z. G. Genetically modified foods, cancer, and diet: myths and reality. Current Oncology 20.2 (2013): pp. 59. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3615871/ on 10th December 2014.
Verma, Charu, et al. A review on impacts of genetically modified food on human health.The Open Nutraceuticals Journal 4 (2011): pp. 3-11. Retrieved from http://benthamopen.com/tonutraj/articles/V004/3TONUTRAJ.pdf on 10th December 2014.
Wegener, Henrik C. Antibiotic resistance—linking human and animal health.Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: : Workshop Summary. National Academies Press, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK114485/ on 10th December 2014.