The story is the story of the grandfather of David, one of my best friend. I knew that his family was migrated from Mexico, so I asked my friend to arrange my meeting with his grandfather. His name is George and now 90 years old. He told that they were six brothers, and he was the youngest one. He was graduated at that time.
He told us that the economic condition and job opportunities in his country always fluctuated. So, after his graduation he was very worried about his career, what to do as he could not find a reasonable career or the good future for his next generation. He was not financially strong by family. So he was searching the best way to survive in the future. He told that, in Mexico, there was very poor infrastructure, unpaved roads, lack of electricity, improper sanitation and portable water, etc. issues. The income distribution among the people was very inequitable as 10 % of the people had 43 % of the overall resources. High poverty and unemployment rate had made the things worse for citizen of Mexico at that time. Since a government of Mexico was failed to provide quality of living to its people, so they started migration to other countries particularly USA. That was also a time when economic recession of 1930 had just ended in the world. He said that he was waiting for an opportunity to migrate to USA somehow. USA had always been a good opportunity and place for Mexicans. History shows that whenever Mexico found some financial, economic or social crisis, USA has always been the first preference to survive themselves. The reason is the strong economy and high opportunities to spend a standard life. The difficulty was that, in that period almost 5,00,000 Mexicans were returned to their home because of the recession all over the world (MEXICAN AMERICANS AND REPATRIATION, n.d.). He had an opportunity to enter to USA illegally and then found some ways to settle himself there. But, he waited for good days.
Then the day came, when the government of the Mexico and the government of USA had an agreement of shifting Mexican labor to USA farms. The farmers in USA were finding an intense need for labor, so this contract was done. The Mexicans had experienced in Bracero of 1917-1921 that they were discriminated in USA and paid less, so this time they were agreed to give them reasonable wages which were of the same amount as to USA labor, also the transport facility should also be provided to the recruiter from the place of recruitment to the job/workplace. The first group of 500 Braceros reached at Stockton on Sep 29, 1942. 4.6 Million of people from Mexico shifted to USA for farm work between 1942-1964. The arrival of Braceros to USA was small during war years. There were only 2 % of the Mexicans in the total farm work force of USA in 1944. The Bracero program of wartime was ended on Dec 31, 1947. USA farmers were still allowed to recruit Braceros through recruitment process (The Bracero Program, n.d.).
Drying out the Wetback
There are some workers who illegally entered to USA at that time, and also some number of workers shifted to USA for work without Bracero. He told that Illegal Mexicans if found at USA farm house were than legalized through a process called “drying out the wetback”, they were taken to the USA Mexico border, issued them some documents and now they are brought back to the same farm as legal braceros. He gave the example that in 1949, around 20,000 of Mexicans employees got the contract as a guest worker in USA, but more than 87,000 Mexicans entered USA as illegally and than their status is legalized. The illegal worker was becoming an issue at that time, so the government recommended employer sanction, to fine an employer who knowingly hired an illegal worker (Braceros History, Compensation, 2006).
Analysis on the Migration
People migrate from one country to another country for their better future. George, grandfather of my friend, told several reasons for his migration. These are political, social and economic environment.
These migrations are due to the political interest or war.
These migrations are for getting the quality of life or get closer to friends or family.
These migrations are due to getting good job in order to build a bright future.
The major force in such migration from one country to another due to the natural disasters such as earth quacks, floods, etc.
These are the major reasons which force the person to migrate from its home country to new host country. In order to understand the process of migration more closely, there is the theory of push/pull theory that explains the reason of migrating in detail.
Push and Pull theory
In Push/Pull theory, it explains two factors. One push factor which explains the reason to leave the country and pull factor explain the reason of moving to a particular country. In the case of my friend’s grandfather, I applied this theory. The push factors explain the reason to leave the Mexico and pull factors explain the reason of moving to the U.S.
Lack of Services
In the Mexico, the services are at low level.
High Crime rate
The law and order in Mexico are in bad shape.
As there is no natural disaster management department often flood and other natural disaster hit the Mexico.
High Crime Rate
Poverty leads to high crime rate. Mexico has high crime rate.
The climate condition of Mexico is also not suitable.
As U.S is one of the top countries in term of economic condition. This country provides the high rate to employments.
The climate of U.S is better than Mexico and production from farming in U.S is higher than Mexico.
Stability in politics
The political condition of U.S is stable.
Low Crime rate
The law and order in America are in good shape. This leads to low crime rate.
The land of U.S for farming is more fertile than Mexico.
In U.S, person has more opportunity in getting more wealth than in Mexico.
Problems in Settlement process in U.S
Immigration process from one country to another country is always a stressful and difficult process. It directly influences the lifestyle and work. However, motivational force for the immigration allows the person to fight against the difficult period. The major reason of migration from one place to another is due to the economic situation, job opportunity, poverty and educational facilities.
The United States of American is always an attractive place for the people because of growth opportunity and jobs availability. The below table explains the numbers of immigrants in the U.S.
In our case of migration from Mexico to the United State, Government plays an important role in the settlement process of immigrants. The U.S Government did Braceros program with the Mexican Government. Due to this program, 4.6 million Mexican moved from Mexico to the United State of America. The U.S needs peoples who assist the American farmers in farming and these Mexican people used for this purpose. The bracerors program ended on 31 December, 1947. However, some of Mexicans remained in U.S for the permanent basis.
As my friend’s grandfather migrated from Mexico to America due to the Bracerors program. However, they also faced many problems and barriers in their start. The major barriers are due to the cultural changes, different norms and values etc.
There are many problems faced by the immigrants during the settlement process in the host country. These problems are best explained by the theory of segment assimilation. The traditional model contains four phases which are: contact, competition, accommodation and assimilation. Every immigrated have to pass from these phases. In the case of my friend’s grandfather, they faced many problems and barrier due to chance in culture, norms and value. However, after sometime, these immigrations became similar in term of values, norms and culture. He was introduced to local community, church and other people with the passage of time and he set himself in this society.
Braceros History, Compensation. (2006, April). Retrieved from Migration: https://migration.ucdavis.edu/rmn/more.php?id=1112_0_4_0
Immgration of USA. (2013, Feb 15). Retrieved April 18, 2014, from http://www.dhs.gov: http://www.dhs.gov/yearbook-immigration-statistics-2012-legal-permanent-residents
MEXICAN AMERICANS AND REPATRIATION. (n.d.). Retrieved from tshaonline: http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/pqmyk
The Bracero Program. (n.d.). Retrieved from farmworkers: http://www.farmworkers.org/bracerop.html