Dietary fiber is a combined term for a diversity of plant matters that are resistant to digestion by human gastrointestinal enzymes. Dietary fibers can be categorized into two major groups according to their solubility in water. In humans, natural gel-forming fibers (gums, pectins, mucilage, and the remains of the hemicelluloses) are soluble. Whereas the matrix fibers or the structural (lignins, some hemicelluloses, and cellulose,) are insoluble, Dietary fiber and whole grains are among the best sources of nutrients including minerals, a slowly digestive energy and vitamins. (Byrne, 2011). They also contain phytochemicals such as carotenoids, lignans, inulin, beta-glucan and phenolic. These chemicals are secreted by plants and they are important factors in human health. Grains and dietary fiber contain an inimitable mixture of bioactive components including vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, phytochemicals, and resistant starches. Research concerning their potential health remuneration has gotten considerable attention in the last few decades. Clinical studies reveal that utilization of whole grains and dietary fiber intake is indirectly related to cardiovascular diseases and obesity. Dietary fiber is a divergent process and depends on both the analytical concept and nutrition. Dietary fiber generally refers to the edible part of the plant or related carbohydrates that are opposed to absorption and digestion in the small intestine.
The literature review was based on an intensive search of the electronic database namely PubMed, and also the reference lists from various relevant primary review articles, meta-analyses and research studies. These also includes the CRC Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition, World Health Organization and also the Food and Agricultural Organization(FAO).the two organizations agrees with the American Association of Cereals Chemist (AACC) and states that dietary fiber is a polysaccharide with several monomeric units which are not hydrolyzed by the hormones in the intestine. Update on Carbohydrate and Human Nutrition, the clinical studies Rabbani, Millard and Triplehorn also demonstrated that oral supplementation of pectin to the infants and children reduce intestinal infections and slows down diarrhea due to reduced pathogenic bacteria such as proteus and salmonella, the WCRF Report on Food, Nutrition, Prevention of Cancer, and Physical Activity (2007), the Pooling Project of the intended Studies of Cancer and Diet and the Cochrane Review on dietary fiber for the impediment of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas were scrutinized for additional relevant papers.
The report on dietary, by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, which outlines some benefits of Dietary Fiber and states that risk factors for Coronary Heart Disease involves obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and the two diabetes. Reference Intakes for Macronutrients; demonstrated that the control and treatment of Coronary Heart Disease risk factors underlie the mechanisms behind (CHD) prevention and Dietary Fiber. The sorts of study that were incorporated for the description syntheses were acute experimental studies, randomized control trials, cross sectional studies and prospective cohort. MEDLINE; National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA): This administration has given approval to two health claims for dietary fiber. Whereby the first claim states that, alongside with a reduced use of fats (with less than 30% of calories), an improved utilization of dietary fiber from vegetables: fruits and whole grains may lessen some kind of cancers such as small intestine, colorectal, larynx, oral, and breast
The second claim dietary fiber supporting health benefit states that diets with low saturation of fat (less than 10% of calories) low cholesterol, and whole grain and high in vegetables, fruits have reduced impacts of risks of Coronary Heart Diseases
American Association of Cereals Chemist (AACC) gives the definition of oat bran as the food produced by crushing clean rolled oats or oat groats and sorting out the resultant oat flour by sifting securing, or other appropriate techniques into portions such that the amount of oat bran does not exceed 50% of the original starting matter and has a totality betaglucan content dietary fiber content of at least 16.0% (dry-weight basis), and at least 5.6% (dry-weight basis) such that at a third of the total dietary fiber is soluble fiber
Materials and Methods Used
- Experiments of the concentration of dietary fiber on blood cholesterol effects in adults were acknowledged by a computerized literature search (MEDLINE; National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD)
A PubMed search was performed with the use of the terms outlined below
- Fiber, Lignin, Oligosaccharide, Inulin, OR Resistant starch, oligosaccharide, Polydextrose, Cardiovascular disease, Cholesterol, Blood pressure, Blood lipids, Hypertension Guar gum, Pectin, Psyllium
In an attempt to justify the benefits of Dietary Fiber, we intended to use observation method. We intended to use a direct observation method so as to capture first hand information as we made a transect walk through the counties and its surrounding and record what we saw that related to our area of interest. We managed to observe the previous records filed relate to Dietary Fiber
We intended to employ structured, semi structured, in-depth interviews, and unstructured and discussions. We intended to interview approximately 3000 respondents translating to 1% of the total population. Our interview was structured in such a way that various groups of people including doctors, farmers, and local authority representatives were reached. We intended to interview every one person out of a hundred (100). Interview helped us acquire the first hand information from the professionals on health on what they know about Dietary Fiber and the benefits it has towards the health of human beings.
Byrne, C. D., & Wild, S. H. (2011). The metabolic syndrome. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley- Blackwell.
In Schweizer, T. F., & In Edwards, C. A. (1992). Dietary fiber: A component of food : Nutritional function in health and disease. Berlin [etc.: Springer Verlag.