CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION, FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
5. Findings and Analysis
Lulivo Irving restaurant is located in London. From the graph above, the hotel has 6 nationalities namely Italian, Albanian, Romanian, Egypt, Spanish and Hungarians. Italians are the majority with 6 followed by Albanian, Romanian and Egypt with 2 then Spanish and Hungarians 1 each. British nationals do not work in the hotel because most do not consider it a noble job to do. In the absence of British nationals, the hotel has no option but to employ other nationals thus the diversity.
Graph 2: Piazza Restaurant
Pizza restaurant has 6 nationals namely Italian, Albanian, Romanian, Egyptian, Spanish and Bosnians. Romanians are the majority, 3 in number, followed by Italians, Bosnians, Albanians, Egyptians and Spanish. The number of Italians, Bosnians, Albanians, Egyptians and Spanish nationals are 2, 2, 2, 1 and 1 respectively. Like Lulivo Irving restaurant, Pizza restaurant lacks British nationals irrespective of the fact that the restaurant is in London. Moreover, the number of hungarians and Bangladesh is zero.
Graph 3: Villiers Street
Lulivo Villier restaurant has diverse multicultural workforce. Nationalities working in the restaurant are Italians, Albanians, Romanians, Egyptians, Spanish and Bangladesh. Highest number of nationals is Romanians followed by Italian, Albanian, Egypt, Spanish and Bangladesh. Lulivo Villier restaurant has 5 Romanians, 4 Italians, 3 Albanians, 2 Egyptians, 2 Spaniards and 2 Bangladesh. Like Pizza Irving restaurant, Lulivo Villier restaurant lacks British and Hungarian nationals.
Graph 4: Wild tree
Wild Tree restaurant has 7 nationalities namely Italian, Albanian, Romanian, Egypt, Spanish and Hungary. No British national works in the restaurant. Highest number of national in the restaurant is Italian. Italian is followed by Albanian, Romanian, Egypt, Spanish and Hungary. Wild Tree restaurant has 6 Italians, 2 Albanians, 2 Romanians, 2 Egyptians, 1 Spaniard and 1 Hungarian.
Graph 5: Graph Containing All Four Restaurants
Graph 5 contains nationalities in the four restaurants. The graph differentiates the restaurants using colors. Blue, red, green and purple represents Wild tree, Lulivo Irving, Lulivo Villiers and Piazza respectively. 8 nationalities namely Italian, Albanian, Romanian, British, Egypt, Spanish, Hungary and Bosnian are put into perspective. From the graph, no British nationals work in the restaurants. More Italians work in Wild Tree and Lulivo Irving. 6 Italians work in Wild tree and Lulivo Irving, 4 work in Lulivo Villiers and 2 in Piazza. Furthermore, when numbers of nationals are compared in the four restaurants, Italians are found to be more.
More Albanians work in Lulivo Villiers compared to Wild tree, Lulivo Irving and Piazza. 3 Albanians working in Lulivo Villiers are 3. Those working in Wild tree, Lulivo Irving and Piazza are 2, 2 and 2 respectively. More Romanians work in Lulivo Villiers than in Wild tree, Lulivo Irving and Paizza. Romanians working in Wild tree, Lulivo Irving, Lulivo Villiers and Piazza are 2, 2, 3 and 2 respectively.
A comparison of Egyptians working in the four restaurants shows equality in Wild tree, Lulivo Irving and Lulivo Villiers. The number of Egyptian nationals working in Wild tree, Lulivo Irving, Lulivo Villiers and Piazza are 2, 2, 2 and 1 respectively. Few Egyptians work in Piazza restaurant. 2 Spaniards work in Lulivo Villiers. 1 works in Wild tree and the other is Lulivo Irving and Piazza. 1 Hungarian works in Wild tree and Lulivo Irving. No Egyptian works in Lulivo Villiers and Piazza. 2 Bosnians work in Piazza restaurant. None works in Wild tree, Lulivo Irving and Lulivo Villiers.
5.1 Analyzing the Interviews
Lulivo Irving has a Romanian manager. Lulivo Irving manager has worked in the restaurant for 5 years. Lulivo Irving is diverse with 6 nationals. Lulivo Irving manager says that it is not an easy task managing diversity in the hotel because each nationality has different perspective on what is good and bad. What is good for one nationality may be bad for another. Challenges faced by the manager in managing diverse multicultural background are the different perspective of good and bad, lack of diversity training makes it very difficult to deal with divesiry. Therefore, manager learn from experience. Third challenge mentioned by the manager is the high turnover where employees do not work in the hotel for more than three months. The high turnover makes trainig of employees useless since they leave and the manager has to start all over again. Moreover, being a Romanian, the manager finds it difficult to understand other languages. Therefore, communication barrier is problem.
Being a tourist hotel, Lulivo Irving restaurant benefits from a multicultural workforce. Diverse workforce especially precence of Italians makes Italian toursists comfortable. The manger further states that benefits of a diverse workforce are not that much. On the question whether diversity leads to more commited, better satisfied, better preforming employees and potentially better financial performance, the manager says that it depends on the organization. In a restaurant qualities mentioned are difficult to achieve because of lack of commitment by employees. Irrespective of the many challenges, the restaurant does not have a training policy which aids the manager in undestanding about cultural differences.
Communication barrier plays a critical role in managing. Communication barriers makes it difficult to explain or make employees understand a situation. In resolving issues between co-workers Lulivo Irving manager says that he tries to make employees understand that they have to tolerate each other. the manger uses dialogue whereby he takes quareliing co-workers aside and try to resolve their differences and put aside their conflicts. Conflicts mainly arise when the restaurant is busy. Because of diverse background, other nationalities respond more passionalely and emotionally than others. Other nationalities express their anger openly.
Piazza restaurant is managed by a Romanian. The restaurant is quite diverse with all nationalities coming to dine in the restaurant. Piazza restaurant lacks British nationals because of the perspective locals have on working in a restaurant. Challenges faced in managing diverse multicultural work force are improper employee behavior that offends clients, fighting between employees, high turnover and large portion of young age. Diverse background makes it difficult for employees to understand one another thus the fighting. High turnover makes training of employees useless since they leave after short period of time. According to the manager, majority of employees in the business and restaurant are young making it difficult for them to be responsible. Moreover, being young means lack of enough experience hence the restaurant cannot benefit in terms of skills.
According to the manager, benefits of working with a diverse multicultural background are the different languages helps to serve tourist well. Moreover, some nationals are responsible and professional. This makes the restaurant perform better. However, the manger states that effectiveness and efficiency cannot be achieved with a diverse workforce. The high turnover makes it difficult to have a team that can work together in harmony. Effectiveness is only achieved depending on the type of organization.
On financial performance, Piazza restaurant manager says diversity has an impact on financial performance. Being an Italian restaurant it is important to have Italians because clients like to be served by people of their own culture. Absence of Italian workforce will send Italian clients away. According to the manger, diversity brings problems. It is difficult to work in such an environment. Diversity is more effective in a non-hospitality environment.
Communication barrier is quite a challenge for effective communication between the manger and employees. Communication barrier makes it difficult to solve conflicts between employees. The high staff turnover makes it difficult to establish a staff that speak languages fluently. Therefore, language barrier is a constant problem faced by Piazza restaurant manager.
When solving conflicts between co-workers, Piazza manager solves them through dialogue. The manager creates creates an environment of equality. He warns employees who constantly cause trouble. However, this is not a regular approach the manager used. He states that he uses a softer approach because it is difficult to predict a persons behaviour. However, in cases where bad behaviour has persisted warnings are isuued.
According to Villiers Street restaurant manager, challenges of managing a diverse multicultural background are difficulty in filling vacancies because most people, especially British national, do not want to do this job. Moreover, it is difficult for workers to acclimatize and acculturate their environment. When they manage to do so they leave immediately. This causes the restaurant to try and fill the position all over again. Communication barrier is also a challenge. Both verbal and non-verbal hinder working relationships. Instances of a worker, from a different background, misunderstanding is high. Such misunderstandings bring about conflict and confusion. Language barrier also makes it difficult for workers to interact with locals who are mostly British. Cases of clients reporting bad services and treatment occur.
Benefits of managing a diverse multicultural background are increased efficiency as a result new skills and employees are able to learn about other cultures. Diversity can be of great benefit in other institutions but not in a restaurant because people work for different reasons. While other is working to improve the restaurant, others work just work for fun so they do not care about performance or progress of the organization. When the manager is asked about a multicultural workforce works in a restaurant he states that it is difficult.
The manager states that there are no barriers for accepting diversity in terms of employees. However, it is extremely difficult for an employee to adapt to a multicultural environment. Employees from other nationalities take a long time to adapt to culture in UK. This is because each nationality has its own background, culture and work-style. An organization with diverse employees has a lot of problems.
Wild tree manager is Albanian. He has worked in the restaurant for ten years. Wild tree is a diverse branch with seven nationalities. According to Wild tree manager, the challenges in managing a diverse multicultural workforce are difficulties in managing cultures, language fluency, personality, character and nationality. Language barrier is also a problem. Benefits of a diverse multicultural workforce are different culture bring new skills and can lead to efficiency. The manager concludes that it is very difficult to know if a multicultural workforce can lead to a more committed workforce, better satisfied and performing employees and better financial performance for the organization. Wild tree manager further reveals that effectiveness of diversity depends on the working environment and organization. He concludes by saying there is more conflict in a multicultural working force than less diverse organization.
According to Wild tree restaurant manager, the restaurant does not have a training program which aids the manager in understanding cultural differences and how to manage it. In fact, the manager says he has not come in contact with a restaurant that has the training. On resolving issues between co-workers when problems arise, Wild tree restaurant manager states that patience is vital. As a result of language differences, it is quite difficult for an employee to hard understand what is being said. Moreover, the diversity of cultures makes it t to convey information because of the differences in methods of relaying information. Therefore, there is a degree of uncertainty of how people should respond to communication. It is also difficult to predict an employee’s behavior.
Wild tree manager says that depending on the age and experience, an employee’s adapt to a multicultural environment. Older and experienced employees adapt easily. However, workers in the hospitality industry are mostly young and not experienced in working with different nationalities.
There are no barriers for accepting workplace diversity. All backgrounds are welcomed. The manager believes that a mixture of British and oversees employees will work well. He states that it is true that a” cultural environment allows differences to be celebrated rather than tolerated” (Malewar 2007). However, if it is not tolerated in hospitality industry then it may become difficult to work.
5.2 Data Analysis
Hospitality industry in London is a multicultural environment where different nationalities work. Nationalities working in the restaurants are Italian, Romanian, Albanian, Indonesian, Egypt, Spanish and Hungary. Lulivo Irving has 6 nationalities namely Italian, Albanian, Romanian, Egypt, Spanish and Hungarians. Majority of them are Italians. Pizza restaurant has 6 nationals namely Italian, Albanian, Romanian, Egyptian, Spanish and Bosnians. Romanians are the majority. Lulivo Villier is comprised of Italians, Albanians, Romanians, Egyptians, Spanish and Bangladesh. Lastly, Wild Tree restaurant has 7 nationalities. No British national works in the restaurants. All are from oversees.
Managers managing the four restaurants are from oversees. Lulivo Irving, Lulivo Villiers, Wild Street and Piazza managers agree that working with a multicultural workforce it quite difficult. Challenges given by the managers are constant conflicts, language barriers, and difficulty in managing cultures, personalities and working styles, high turnover, difficulty in filling vacant positions.
Lulivo Irving, Lulivo Villiers, Wild Street and Piazza managers agree few benefits can be defined in a multicultural environment. All of them are of the idea that having a multicultural workforce is different skills to the restaurants. 1 manager from Lulivo Irving agreed with the fact that a diverse multicultural workforce assists a restaurant to work effectively. An Italian restaurant with Italian employees makes clients comfortable. Clients usually find it satisfying when they are served by their own nationality. Therefore, a diverse workforce is of great benefit to the hospitality industry.
Communication barrier is a major challenge to all managers. Managers find it difficult to communicate with employees especially during conflicts. Communication barrier both verbal and non verbal plays a major role in increasing the rate of conflicts in the restaurants. All restaurants report conflicts as a result of misunderstanding of verbal and non-verbal communication. Solving of conflicts becomes difficult due to communication barrier.
Lulivo Irving, Lulivo Villiers, Wild Street and Piazza managers use a polite approach in solving conflicts. None uses authoritarian method since technique of management is horizontal rather than vertical. When method of management is horizontal it becomes difficult to manage conflicts using authoritarian technique. Authoritarian technique is only useful when type of management is horizontal.
Moreover, hospitality industry is faced by a high turnover. Employees do not take more than three months in restaurants. Findings from the questionnaires show that most employees who work on this industry are young. Some of them work not to earn money but for fun. Lulivo Irving manager admit young people are not committed to work. As a result of the young age, the restaurants experience a higher turnover.
Irrespective of the challenges in managing a diverse workforce, no restaurant has training policy. Managers have to learn through experience. Training in order to understand cultural differences is vital for effective management of a diverse multicultural workforce. Without training, restaurants will still have difficulties in managing such a workforce. It is a fact that London hospitality workforce will continually be diverse and multicultural. A lack of a training policy will have its implications. One of them is that managers will continually find it difficult to manage a diverse multicultural workforce. Data presented is important for all organization and hospitality industry.
London hospitality industry will continually be multicultural and diverse. Due to the negative perception of British locals, majority of employees in restaurants will be from oversees. It will take a long time before British nationals take restaurant work seriously. Research shows that training has a great impact on reducing challenges and increase benefits. Therefore, lack of training policies means more challenges for the managers. Without proper management of a diverse multicultural environment benefits of such a workforce will not be achieved.
First recommendation is creating cultural awareness through trainings and workshop. This assists the employees to become aware of different communication methods, cultural values and interpersonal relationship (Lee and Chon 2000). When carrying out this training, specific information should be given. This information makes the trainings relevant and comprehensive. Moreover, it gives details and importance of training program ensuring that managers understand (Kim 2008).
In order to manage diversity in a multicultural environment, managers need to use synergistic approach. This approach states that people may come from a different background but none is superior to the other. All cultures are equal. This approach takes into consideration differences and similarities of all cultures. It recognizes that the world is a global organization where cultures interact do business together and live together. This approach helps management create an environment in which employees, understand and appreciate each other (Kamal and Ferdousi 2009).
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