Paleolithic period refers to the stage of human development characterized by the early life which involved the Stone Age in relation to tools and weapons. This is the earliest stage in the lives of human beings history. The technical human prehistory is well covered in this period or era. The stone tools and weapons as well as stone sculptures were the distinct characteristics of this age. The human activities during this period were hunting and gathering as well as scavenging wild animals. In this period, wood and bones were also used in making of tools and other useful elements in the community. Carvings and bone sculptures therefore formed the world of art at that time. It was also characterized by the use of leather and fiber in clothing and tool making. An example of art in Paleolithic period is the carvings and paintings on stones.
On the other hand, Neolithic period refers to the new stone age characterized by technological developments as well as improvement of the techniques used in the Old Stone Age. The use f metals became rampant in this age where most tools were made with the use of metals. Animal husbandry and farming also became more pronounced during this error leading to development of arts based on grains and cereals as well as food culture improvement. The skills relating o pottery were developed during this age. An example of art in this period is the drawings of cooking items.
In the book, Living With Art, the reasons art survives were elaborated. Arts survives because most works of art are made from durable materials like steel which lasts for long. Most works are also durable due to the fact that most rituals are portrayed in such arts thereby facilitating preservation of such rituals. Arts which are not made up of durable materials are likely not to survive.
The shift in Roman Empire was mainly caused by three factors which include internal civil wars, external invasions as well as economic problems and weaknesses. The city of Rome gradually lost its role as an administrative centre due to the shift of the Roman Empire. This therefore led to the principle of hereditary succession. The Byzantines experienced a lot of cultural and political threats from Europe and Asia. Religious conflict also arose due the wide spread of Islam among these territorial borders. This shift also influenced the way in which the works f art are presented. The ancient gods in the Roman Empire were evaded leading to a more transformed of Roman Catholic Church where most works of art are appreciated in the Church. The way in which works of art are transformed and the works related to war were designed by the experts. The shift also led to development of new works of art and architecture especially with respect to the type of animals reared for domestic purposes as well as the kind of human activity like farming necessary for survival of human beings. The change in animal style also changed due to the new culture of people in that region. The Gothic works of art were as a result o German culture which was rampant in this region while most of Romanesque works of are mainly as a result of the changing Roman culture in this region. This series f stages therefore ld to major developments in the world of art and architecture.
Question 5: .
This style of art was introduced due the influence and introduction of Christianity. The introduction of Christianity helped in elimination of the carvings as well as sculptures relating to the previous gods. The culture of art therefore changed gradually due to the effect of Christianity. The structures of the old Roman Catholic Churches were distinct works of art elaborated in this theory. The influence of Islam in this period led to development of various artistic works which facilitated preservation of both religious and cultural rituals. These works of art and architecture were helpful understanding the culture and lifestyles of the people who lived at that period of time. The type of farming tools as shown by artistic works is useful in tracing the economic development from one period of time. This will also help keep track of the development in technology used by the members of the society at that particular period of time. These works of art play a role in determination of the type of religious activities f the people as well as the value they attach to their god depending on the type of materials in such worship places; like shrines and the Roman Catholic Church. The items in the Roman Catholic were made up f gold therefore helps in indicating that God is precious. The structure of the church also gave an impression that it was made up of very hard and strong materials which in turn ensures duration.
Getlein, Mark, and Rita Gilbert. Living with Art. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.
Getlein, Mark. Living with Art. Boston, Mass: McGraw Hill, 2008. Print.
Hirschfield, Alan J, Terry Winchell, and Garth Dowling. Living with American Indian Art: The Hirschfield Collection. Layton, UT: Gibbs Smith, 2012. Print.