The effects of climate change are significant around the globe. Coastal waters and temperatures are on the rise as a result of climate change in many regions around the world. Scientists predict a global extreme weather change that will have negative effects on human beings, plants and animals. Climate change is associated with continuous trends of increases in temperature. The worst hit decade since 1850 was 2000 to 2009. Climate scientists view that if green house gases continue to be emitted global temperatures should be expected to rise by the end of this century. The exact amount of temperature changes is dependent on the level of emissions (Fung, Lopez and New, 2011).
Climate change results to changes in sea levels. Since the results of climate change began being significant around the globe, the average sea levels have been on a rising trend. This risks the lives of people who live along low-lying islands located along the seas due to flooding.
Climate change leads to extreme changes in weather, which are hazardous to life. Research indicates that the hurricane Katrina experienced in 2005 was a result of climate change on weather. The continuing global warming signals that extreme weather changes like draughts, severe floods, and tropical storms are more likely to become more frequent and hazardous (Bennet, 2011).
The effects of extreme weather are likely to be more severe even in the coming decades. The emissions from green houses contribute to the formation of acidic rains. The compounds formed as a result of mixing of these emitted gases cause abnormal rains that are dangerous to both plants and living things. Australia, for example, has lost prime fish species as a result of the acidic rains on the seas (Ruth and Ibarraran, 2009). Acidic rains affect valuable plant species and animals globally. Some species do not adapt to the changes, and they are totally lost.
Climate change also influences draught and water shortages. As temperature rises and patterns of rain change, the yield expectation from crops drops. Irrigation becomes unpredictable due to the variations of the rains. Salt that rises from sea levels contaminates the available underground fresh water in coastal areas (Shukla, 2003). This leads to draughts. Draughts in the globe are likely to become more frequent, and scientists project that by 2080, up to three billion people could suffer.
Other effects of climate change include decreased income levels from tourism as a result of damaged tourist attraction sites. The trend of consumer behavior is changed by climatic changes. Health effects lead to changes in the consumption. The transport sector is also affected by climatic and weather changes. Air and sea transport is the most affected due to the green house emissions and acidic rains. This affects the global economy negatively.
Causes of climate change
Scientists agree that climate changes are caused by both natural and artificial emissions of green house gases. Naturally, harmful gases like nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide trap heat in the atmosphere. These gases form compounds that trigger volcanic eruptions and even variations in the earth’s orbit. The earth’s orbit has three cyclical variations that scientists view as probable causes for climatic change. The variations vary the levels of solar radiation on the earth’s surface, and this initiates changes in climate (Ruth and Ibarraran, 2009).
However, scientists argue that the key causes of climate changes are induced by human activity. Most green house emissions result from emission of dangerous gases from industries. These gases trap the heat that radiates from the earth’s surface towards the space. The gases form a blanket that blocks the heat from escaping resulting into formation of long-lived gases. These gases remain in the atmosphere semi-permanently and are known to induce to climatic changes.
Besides emissions from industries, human beings burn fossil fuels for heating, transportation, and for water treatment. Fuels like gas, coal and oil are burnt to serve these purposes. The results are emission of green house gases that lead to climate changes. Deforestation is another human being’s activity that accounts for at least 20% of human carbon. Trees absorb carbon dioxide while growing; the more the activity continues, the fewer the trees are left to absorb this hazardous gas. This leads to increased amounts of carbon dioxide building up in the atmosphere.
Impact of climate change of china and India in the last ten years.
China and India are amid the countries that are most susceptible to the global effects of climate change. Over the last decade, China has been adversely affected in agriculture, forestry, livestock, natural resources and coasts due to climatic changes. Dry seasons resulting from lack of rains have led to lack of irrigation water and draughts that have affected the agricultural and livestock sector. China’s forestry and natural resources have been threatened by melting glaciers resulting from increased temperatures. Climate change has led to changes in supply of water resources around the country. The amounts of water levels of Huaihe, Haihe, Liaohe and Yellow Rivers have significantly dropped (Song and Woo, 2008). Contrary in the southlands, floods are common gestures. Soil salinization, seawater intrusions and coastal erosions have been witnessed due to acceleration trends of the sea level. This has resulted into seawater acidification that affects aquatic life and the coast lines (Bennet, 2011).
In India, climate changes have led to a slow process of development. The effects of global warming are all over this developing nation. The impacts are significant in cyclones, salinization of coastlines and heat waves, floods. All these have in one way or another affected agriculture and health sectors. According to United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), India is at risk of greater impact on climate change. This is on account of its geography and diverse population. The changes in climate are bound to risk the basic health requirements (Dinar, 1998). This includes air, water, shelter, food and freedom from diseases.
India imports high quantities of fossils to meet its energy requirements. As a result, harmful gases are emitted in the atmosphere that has increased the impacts of climate change in the country. Climate changes in India have influenced both direct and indirect impacts on human health. Indirect effects arise from the temperature changes that have destroyed natural ecosystems, agriculture, contaminated fresh water resources and caused a large-scale rearrangement of plants and animals. The results of climate change in India have resulted into increases in poverty levels. This is as a result of increased prices of Agricultural products that many residents rely on. Most of the country’s revenues are allocated to solve the climatic problems that development and industrialization have contributed. These have left some critical sectors like health sectors unattended to. As a result, increases in death rates caused by diseases like cancer have been reported in the country.
Bennet, P. M., 2011. Implications of Climate Change in China. Huntington, NY: Nova Science Pub Incorporated.
Dinar, A., 1998. Measuring the Impact of Climate Change on Indian Agriculture. New York: World Bank Publications.
Fung, C. f., Lopez, A. and New M., 2011. Modeling the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Ruth, M. and Ibarraran, M. E., 2009. Distribution Impacts of Climate Change and Disasters: Concepts and Cases. Florida: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Shukla, P. R., 2003. Climate Change in India: Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation. Oxford: University Press.
Song, L. and Woo, W. T., 2008. China’s Dilemma: Economic Growth, the Environment and Climate Change. California, CA: Brookings Institution Press.