A comparative literature review was conducted as the first phase of our research projected and it main goals focused on the effects of terrorism in developing countries. The study area of literature review was carried out in Portland. The main aim was to determine the outcomes that the communities and effect of terrorism in one’s country. The study reveals that fire service agencies in the United States are facing new and more difficulties challenges in regulating. According to the review it is noted that terrorism creates fear and causes instability hence negative impact on the economy of Portland (Wilson, 10). The literature review targeted trade operational plans, journals, textbooks, websites, and magazines that contained data on act of terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). Applicable sources were summarized and enclosed during this study.
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Experts reveal and agree that weapons of mass destruction utilized by terrorist are categorized into three terrorist incidents. The study found that there are two common incidences that are involved with terrorism; they include nuclear and biological weapons.
The most seemingly state of affairs facing public safety agencies would be associated with accident involving the transportation of nuclear materials at intervals their jurisdictions. Whereas a nuclear energy plant might not be nearby, the radioactive materials are then transported to America. For the primary part, such incidents would be considered a HAZMAT issue and dealt with on that basis by first responders (Perez & Frank, 34)
In our studies we noticed that the problem with radiation is that it is an invisible hazard. Unless the responding public safety agency has tomography detection instrumentation, or the nuclear material in question is clearly marked and known, there's a powerful probability that the initial identification of a radiobiological or nuclear hazard can go forgotten. An extra concern would be the provision of protecting article of clothing and respiration gear, in ample quantities, to guard first responders (Wilson, 10).
Radiological incidents can be divided into three categories:
1. Radiological dissemination devices detonation of a standard explosive that incorporated radioactive materials as a part of the device.
2. Detonation of an outsized device (truck or vehicle bomb) close to a nuclear energy plant, analysis nuclear reactor or a passing tomography freight transport, with the intent of disrupting the containment and shielding of the radioactive materials.
3. Nuclear bomb.
The study discovers that biological agents are mostly deadly than chemical agents and occur in nature moreover as being developed. Massive numbers of present poisons have additionally been examined to see their price as warfare agents; these embody Caspian (an extract of cayenne pepper and paprika), Rican (a cytotoxic substance found within the castor bean), and neurolysin (a cytotoxic substance secreted by sure shellfish). Comparing biological with the other categories such as chemical and nuclear agents biological was discovered to be most affordable to supply (Wilson, 10).
The most sensible technique of initiating infection victimization biological agents is through the spread of agents within a friction of seconds. Mobile particles (aerosols) are finely divided particles of liquid or solid suspended in an exceedingly gas that are sprayed over a target. An aerosol is also effective for a few times when delivery, since it'll be deposited on vesture, instrumentation and soil (Greenberg, 23). Once the vesture is used later, or mud is stirred, responding personnel might be subject to a secondary spread.
Biological agents are also able to use portals of entry into the body apart from the tract. People might be infected by activity of contaminated food and water or even by direct contact with the skin through skinned or broken skin. In the United States, biologic attack agents are classified into three categories; pathogens (microorganisms); toxins and bio-regulators
Pathogens was discovered as dangerous out of the many thousands of microorganisms best-known, solely a couple of hundred will manufacture malady in humans. Second the study concludes that Toxins are poisonous substances of natural origin created and obtained from animals, plants, or microbes. The last category to study under biological agents is Bio-regulators may be a quite enclosure class for toxins. All different agents of biological origin that may be found within the flesh that may probably cause severe or harmful effects are place into this category (Wilson, 10).
In conclusion, this study through a review of surveying of the countries that are involved with terrorism tries to identify the outcomes of involving in terrorism that lowers unity and peace in one’s country. However to conquer this threat Portland bureau of fire and Rescue and Emergencies Services were to improve their capability in order to respond to acts of terrorism. The study reviews that the city of Portland was ready to handle all the cases of terrorism by doing so they requested a grant from the federal government to support them the plan to develop Seattle Fire Department (Giegerich, 14). In a concluding the mark the understanding of types WMD that are being used currently in terrorism is essential to the fire first responders.
Giegerich, Andy. Adams releases anti-terrorism plan (2012): n. pag. Web. 1 Dec. 2012.
Greenberg, Brad A. "Portland terror attack foiled." Terrorism in Portland (2010): 14. Web. 27 Nov. 2010.
Perez, Frank H. The Impact of International Terrorism: October 29, 1981. Washington, D.C: U.S. Dept. of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, Office of Public Communication, Editorial Division, 1981. Print.
Saul, Ben. Terrorism. Oxford: Hart Pub, 2012. Print.
Taylor, Maxwell, and John Horgan. The Future of Terrorism. London: Frank Cass, 2000. Print.
Wilson, Ed. "TERRORISM AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE FIRE SERVICES." Terrorism in Portland (1999): 10. Web. 1 Dec. 1999.