The “outsiders in mass politics”. How did these groups affect European political developments in the late 19th and early 20th centuries? Did these groups have anything in common?
The main slogan of women struggling for their decent place in the society was “All men and women are created equal”. Those years first magazines devoted to women's struggle for equality appeared, revolutionary organizations and groups for the same purposes were opening involving more and more women that were struggling for their political rights. Their fundamental purpose was getting right to vote. When peaceful methods didn`t work, women groups standing for their fundamental rights were resorting to revolts and acts of sabotage. All in all, the governments of some countries were forced to step back and granted them right to vote and some other political rights equalizing them to men – in the Russian Empire – in 1917, in England and Germany on 1918, in the USA – 1920 etc. That action led to increase in number of voters and resulted in democracy in a larger extent in those countries.
With the end of formation of nation states (that took place in the late 19th – early 20th centuries) national minorities living on territories of those countries experienced harassments, unequal status with the rest of the people living on those territories. This could not last any longer when mass politics seemed to become prevailing. Results of their struggle were formation of political parties calling for larger rights to ethnic minorities, emergence of movements and groups supporting anarchism even sometimes with open use of violence against objectors. For sure, national governments had to suffice their needs by providing larger autonomies and greater fundamental human rights to persons lately oppressed. The same issue was with laborers who felt protection of actively developments trade unions and who were given more favourable conditions of work due to the reason of governments` understanding that changes those times were necessary.
Being oppresses in their motherlands, the Jewish people had nothing left but look for another motherland. The Jews, having minor right in politics of masses, but strong supporters all over the world, managed to create strong grounds for their future independence on the land of Palestine. The Jews, supported by higher leadership of European countries of those times could organize mass migration of their people to the Middle East territories of future state of Israel.
As we see, once “outsiders of mass politics” lost their status mostly after World War I mostly because weakened governments of European states were in great necessity of support in the post-war era. Actions of the above mentioned groups within this time frame (late 19th-early 20th centuries), which were commonly united with the one basic characteristic – their inequality in comparison with other participants in political life of nations – affected political developments in Europe by becoming an inalienable and adherent part of those who managed mass politics.
Defining nationalism, I would say that it is a faith of a person in the country for one`s own nation, in the right of people to have their own sovereign country that will take care of its interests, protect them. This notion is often typical for oppressed states. At its core, nationalism preaches loyalty and devotion to the nation, political independence and work for the good of the nation, the cultural and spiritual growth, a unification of national identity for the practical protection of the living conditions of the nation, of its territory of residence, of economic resources and of the spiritual values.