The pivotal role that research plays in healthcare delivery cannot be understated. In this regard, it is apposite that health care professionals are equipped with knowledge of how to scrutinize research articles in a bid to ensure that researches are done accurately and properly. This statement emphasizes the need for decently carried out researches; a decency that can only be ascertained if information presented by researchers after carrying our researches are carefully critiqued. The paper presents a critique of an article by Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark (n.d) through careful analysis of the sections of the article
Title of article
The essence of a research paper is to attract readers as much as it can. Therefore, a research title is by all means the first introduction that beckons readers to read a researcher, and it is in this regard that Thomas, Nelson and Silverman (2011) write that the main function of a research title is to communicate the exact purpose of s research article and should be made as succinct as possible. Thomas, Nelson and Silverman (2011) also assert that research title should be reasonably short; the title short title should be able to reflect the whole content in the research and should have the quality of being easily retrieved through electronic databases. Admittedly, the title given to Eley, Eley and Roger-Clark’s, article “Reasons for entering and leaving nursing: an Australian regional study”, is of suitable length and gives a wholesome reflection of the content of the article hence has the qualities of short, succinct and apt as described by Thomas, Nelson and Silverman (2011).
Abstract of article
There are two main types of abstracts that are available for use in researcher papers; descriptive abstracts, which convey the outline of a work in 100 words or less, though does not make any judgment, includes any finding nor conclusion and informative abstracts which give short explanations of the main arguments in a work and has a length of about 10% of the entire work and outlines the findings of the work well as conclusion (Kushal, 2009). The abstract for Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark’s article fits in the category of an informative abstract as it gives short explanations of the mains points in the article. Further the abstract encompasses the research findings and conclusion which are typic for only informative abstracts. By using small subtopics in the abstract, the researchers have made the abstract remarkably succinct.
Introduction of article
The introduction for Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark’s article serves to provide a background of the research while also validating research gap that the research intends to fill. As indicated in the article, there is still an acute shortage of nurses in Australia even though several people have recently joined the profession for varied which previous researches have pinpointed as altruism, vocation, stepping stone to another career, among others. At the end of the introduction, the researcher reveal the purpose of the research as “to determine their reasons for entering the profession, their intended retention and reasons that would influence departure” and also “to present crucial information on the demographic profile of nursing student”. Richardson-Tench (2001) is opinionative that it is of the essence to always provide information of the importance of a study and also reckon on some of the previous studies on the same topic at the beginning of an article.
Literature Review of article
According to Ridley (2012), a literature review is part of a research work in which the researcher investigates the available information in relation to the intended research work. This section also seeks to draw a relationship between already done research works on the same topic, what they sought to investigate and findings. However, Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark (n.d) does not contain a literature review even though much of the information provided in the introduction resemble the same information that should have been included in the literature review section had it been present. This statement underscores the fact that researchers, in the introduction, have tried to relate their research article with other studies.
Aim and Hypothesis of article
The article by Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark (n.d) has a clearly indicated objective but not a hypothesis. It should be noted that hypothesis, though utile in formulating a research design (Ariola, 2006), researchers are not always expected to include hypotheses in their research articles. Nonetheless, an objective should by all means be included in the research article as this serves to enlighten the reader on what the article is about. Ideally, hypothesis and objective if compared in terms of essentiality, it can be avowed that an objective is far much essential compared to a hypothesis.
Methodology of article
Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark (n.d) highlight their research design, participants, material used on the study and the method of analysis used for their research. The manner in which the aforementioned components of the methodology of by Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark (n.d) research article are highlighted is overly concise and easily understandable to anyone in readership of the article. Creswell (2003) documents that the methodology section of a research article should follow a standard format whereby the principal components that constitute a methodology are included. These components include; research design, sample and participant and material required for the research. Apparently, all these components are included in Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark’s research article.
Sample of article
As stated by Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark, the research target about 800 registered and enrolled nurses employed in public health services in a distric in Queensland and 442 students pursuing nursing at a Queensland University.
The research was carried out in 2009 using a quantitative cross‑sectional cohort design. Notably the researchers obtained approval from the university and the health service ethics committee. Ideally, ethics approval is one of the most fundamental of a research. Cryer (2006) on his parts warns that getting ethics approval might turn out to be a time consuming endeavor though the amount of time always varies with the type of research to be carried out. Yardley and Marks (2003) deliberate that ethics is a cardinal factor that should be considered in every step of planning a research. The fact that the researchers obtained ethical approval serves to prove that the researchers considered research ethics in their research.
As the second last entry in the article’s methodology section, the researcher presents to the reader the materials that were used during the study. The researchers used an online instrument to collect data from the participants. The instrument was utilitarian to the researchers as it enabled them collect information about the participants’ ages, sex, designation, main job, and the length of time a nurse participant has spent on the job. Besides, since the research was also aimed are investigating the reasons that lead people into the nursing career, the unnamed online instrument was used by the researcher to offer 17 suggestive reasons that people often cite to be the reasons that led them into the nursing profession and requiring the participants to choose only three. As the researchers noted, the reasons were compiled from related researchers already carried out as well as from existing literature. Since the researchers did not mentioned the name of the online instrument used for the research, it becomes hard to state the reliability of the instrument. However, it should be noted that instruments for data collection for use in researcher should be highly reliable (Liamputtong, 2010). Information about the reliability of instruments can be obtained from the accounts of previous researchers who used the instrument and such information are normally readily available in the internet.
Gerrish and Lacey (2011) articulate that the data analysis is perhaps the most salient part of any research work. Accurate conclusions can only be draw if the collected data are analyzed in a proper manner. As Gerrish and Lacey (2011) enunciate once data have been collected, they have to be coordinated in a way such way that they permit conclusions to be drawn from them. Data is always analyzed depending on the research design used. As the researchers stated in their article, the analysis process began with the summarization of the descriptive statistics followed by comparison of the summarized statistics during which their differences were investigated using a chi square and Z‑test for two proportions. For significance, an alpha level of 0.05 was needed
Findings of article
This is the section that gives a summary of the experimental outcomes of the study. Ideally, the results (or findings) of a study should be presented in a manner that makes the information easily comprehensible to anyone in readership of the research article. Nonetheless, the information is normally supposed be presented in as scientific manner; presenting research findings in a comprehensible manner and in a scientific manner should not cause any confusion whatsoever. Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark (n.d) present their research findings in an easy to understand manner by making use of subtopics and tables. By using tables, the researchers are able the give an overall picture of the findings more clearly (Sanchez, 1998).
Discussion of article
The discussion section is a part of a research article where the research findings are described and interpreted to facilitate the process of drawing a conclusion. Richardson-Tench (2011) warns that this section should involve the discussion of the significance of the research findings than just a summary of the findings. However, it is commendable the way Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark (n.d) present information in the discussion section of their article; researcher actually interpreted the research findings and avoided presenting a summary of the finding just like Richardson-Tench (2011) warned. The researchers also used the opportunity to pinpoint an opening for future research; the researchers stated that their study did not attempt the investigate the motivation of students to pursue nursing by enrolling in registered nursing programs and invited researchers to investing this are in the future.
Limitations of article
Additionally, the researchers were keen present some of the factors that limited their research. For instance, the researchers contend that they were not able to ascertain the exact number of the target group who were receiving invitations to participate in the research. Notwithstanding, It should be noted that there no research work ever been proven to be perfect (Peat, 2001). However, Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark (n.d) emphasized in the article that in spite of the few flaws of their research, their findings can be much importance in formulating workforce planning strategies.
Conclusion of article
Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark, under the guidance of their findings, conclusions included; factors that contribute to retentions should be known from successful workforce planning, retention programs should be reconstructed to include both students and practicing nurses and quite interestingly, since a majority of the respondents admitted to joining the nursing profession for care still the retention rate in the nursing profession is as low as ever, it implies that the working environment in nursing does not value or uphold caring ethos.
References of article
The reference list in the article by Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark (n.d) included all the in text citations and are complete and accurate.
Concisely the research undertaken by Eley, Eley, and Roger-Clark (n.d) is indispensable. This can be asserted with in mind that is serves to fill a tremendously significant gap in literature especially with regards to the shortage of nurses in Australia and in the world over. Generally, the researcher was carried out in an ethical and precise manner. Virtually, none of information included in their article is incomprehensible.
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