Question 1 a
Tourism, as well as other factors associated with it such as travelling, are associated with several risks. While it is not the hospitality industry that carries risks in its operations, its managers often overlook them. In turn, it could lead to the occurrence of a crisis. For this reason, it becomes important to devise ways to manage crises in cases of their occurrence. There are several differences between a risk and a crisis in the hospitality industry.
First, a crisis is an event that has already been identified, while a risk uses data to determine its occurrence. Therefore, a risk has to be identified so that it averts the occurrence of a crisis. Another difference between the two is that while managing a risk, the involved hospitality industry often seeks to hinder its occurrence in the future. On the same, managing a crisis is necessary to reduce the effects of the damage it has caused. Finally, a company has to assess several factors when identifying a risk. First, the company needs to analyse its history, look at its tracking systems and analyse other companies to learn from them. In the case of a crisis, a company needs to have precise information such as its medical and criminal implications. It also needs to develop an attitude that enables it to be ready for whatever implications that may come with it.
Ritchie, states that anyone running the tourism and hospitality industry needs to be ready for disasters and crises in the industry. I believe that the above author’s comments are true. A hotel or firm related to the same needs to assess all the possible risks surrounding it. It should assess its environment to seek out possible dangers since they are part of the industry. As he further states, the firm should be amply prepared for the event of a crisis. As he again mentions, a firm needs to develop and execute management plans. For instance, a tourist attraction may be located in a remote area. The area may also be natural due to its being situated far from urban centres. For these reasons, the site may be prone to terrorist attacks, or a natural disaster. The risk of the above site is its location in a remote centre. While applying Ritchie’s concepts, the above firm should be aware and ready for the possible risks. The crisis that may occur is the terrorist attack. It may have to devise security measures that will reduce the occurrence of a crisis. Ritchie also states that the firm needs to ensure that the measures it uses to hinder the occurrence of a risk are successful. It could use the history of firms that have set up their tourist attraction sites to determine the type of measures to put up. Again, it could also use experts to analyse the success of the measures it may use. Therefore, in consideration of Ritchie’s statement, a firm should consider all the factors he states to ensure its success and preparedness.
Tourism in the Philippines
The tourism and hospitality industry is in several ways affected by the occurrence of a risk or crisis. In the Philippines, there are several sites of attraction but despite that being the case; the country suffers low income from the industry. One of the major reasons for this is the history of political instability in the country. One of the most intense crises that hit the Philippines was that of an occurrence of an earthquake that occurred in 1960. While this natural disaster may have taken place several years back, there is a probability that it may re-occur. The earthquake caused several deaths, as well as, the destruction of several properties. Other than creating tension among the current and prospective tourists to the country, the earthquake caused a tremendous loss at its occurrence. It may have spelt implications such as a declining economy and increased cases of poverty.
I intend to discuss this section by stating each of the effects of crises, concerning the Philippine government. Each crisis discussed will have its implications accompanying it.
One of the first crises, as mentioned above, is the natural disasters affecting the country. The state also suffers disasters such as mudslides, volcanic eruptions and floods. The state is also known to experience the worst storms in the world, making it a high-risk state. As such, earthquakes are only an example of several other natural disasters that occur in the state. In the event such as the one mentioned above, the state may suffer massive losses on its citizens and structures (Henerson 165). The tourists are also at risk of death from exposure to such occurrences. For this reason, they will probably avoid visiting the country. There may have been hotels or structures that offered accommodation to the tourists going into the country. Not only will there be no more income from the renting tourists, but a large number of citizens will also lose their jobs. It means that the already grave situation of poverty in the country will grow worse, due to an increased number of jobless individuals. Additionally, tourists may refrain from visiting that country, to avoid any risks that may be related to the disasters.
Political instability is another factor that influences the occurrence and effects of a crisis. The Philippines has had a history of cases of political instability, which in turn trigger terrorist attacks. Take an example where the government is too full of conflict to form any amicable solutions to the issues facing the tourism industry. In some cases where attacks are involved, they could be an inside job (Henerson 163). There could be attempts of coups which further weaken the government. In the process, the government may be unable to cater for the problems within the tourism industry, therefore neglecting it. On the same issue, the citizens could be too engrossed in their personal issues that they do not care for their surroundings. It would be total neglect to the country’s tourist attraction. It may expose the country to further political, economic and social problems. Concerning the above factors, the Philippines should work first to improve its governmental operations. With a coordinated government, it will manage to coordinate its other activities. This process will ensure better structures, better working conditions, an improved economy and a better reputation for the country in general. A better reputation will win back the trust from tourists, and may be the first step towards recovering the already declining Philippine tourism and hospitality industry.
Finally, there could be crises such as currency fluctuations or high taxes from without the country or failing revenues, increasing expenses and losses within the country. It could translate to the hiking of accommodative structures and commodities that may be availed to the tourists. The tourists may find that they pay thrice as much for an entry fee to the same destination, as they may have paid earlier. Other than causing a shaky economy, this may also affect the reputation of the country (Henerson 162). No tourist would trust the honesty of the state again, should they doubt the stability of prices. This situation may also influence the relationship between the state and other nations. If other nations learn about its instability, they could warn its citizens to stay away from it. Additionally, it may affect other relations such as trade relations with other countries. If the country is neglected by other nations, it may be helpless in its operations since it may be dependent on them, especially considering the fact that it is a developing country.
Considering all the above factors, one understands that the stability of the government is the most important element of success. Once the political environment is stable, all other activities in the Philippines will probably take their right course, especially in the sector under discussion.
Tourism, despite not being the main source of income, is a backbone for several counties. In his statement above, Ritchie mentions that tourism and the hospitality industry need to be ready for any possible risks since those are part of the industry. As seen on in the paper, crises and disasters may come in several forms. Financial, internal conflicts, external conflicts and natural disasters; each one of them has an adverse effect on the economy of a state, political, and social status. If the countries employ strategies to uncover and solve their problems, they could avert, in a great way, a majority of the crises that may come from the risks. Again, the governments need to focus on being stable enough to ensure that they achieve maximum gain from the tourism industry in their states. Finally, the government of a country; for instance the Philippine, should support the investors in the tourism industry. They could do this by helping with security issues or running projects that may help assess the possible risks of specific attractions.
Henerson, C., Joan. Tourism Development and Politics in the Philippines. Tourismos:
An International Multisdisciplinary Journal of Tourism. Retrieved from:- http://www.chios.aegean.gr/tourism/VOLUME_6_No2_art09.pdf