We normally encounter and use the word culture severally in different contexts. We attend to cultural programs, talk about the cultural differences, read about danger of cults, and cultivate bad or good habits. There are various definitions of culture. Culture refers to cumulative deposit of experience, knowledge, values, attitudes, beliefs, religion, and notions of time, hierarchies, meanings, spatial relations, roles, possessions, and material objects that are acquired by individuals in the course of generations by these individuals and their groups striving. In its broadest sense it is referred to as a cultivated behavior meaning that, it is the totality of learned and accumulated experience of a person that is socially transmitted. Therefore, it is a framework of the behavior patterns, assumptions, experiences, and values that are shared a group of people who are socially connected.
Being aware of our cultural conditioning and having knowledge about the other cultural systems build a foundation of cross cultural training and at the same time pave the way towards cross cultural competence. The adoption of some particular elements of a given culture by a cultural group that is different is referred to as cultural appropriation. Thus, it is possible to find a particular element being shared by two cultures or more cultures. Cultural appropriation describes assimilation or acculturation. However, it can imply a view that is negative towards the acculturation from minority culture by dominant culture. It can essentially include introduction of forms of personal adornment or dress, art and music, language, religion, or social behavior.
Appropriation practices involve the appropriation of artifacts, ideas, symbols, image, styles, or forms, or sound from the other cultures, from popular culture, from art history, or the other aspects of man made non visual or visual culture. Various Anthropologists have actually studied cultural appropriation process or cultural borrowing that include urbanism and art, as a cultural change part and contact between various cultures. For instance, it is possible to compare and contrast the roman culture and Greek culture. The Roman culture particularly architecture was inspired by the Greek architectural culture. There are a number of similarities between the two cultures and styles. Combined together, these cultures form the genre called classical architecture. However, they have their own share of differences.
In terms of the building materials, the Ancient Greeks built with wood, mud, stone, and plaster. Naturally, a great number of their buildings failed to endure a test of Time. However, the Greeks constructed their temples with limestone or marble, and several of these examples are still prevalent in these days. On the other hand, the Ancient Romans used the same materials as the Greeks especially limestone and marble. They are the ones who are believed to have perfected use of concrete since various ancient structures they have were constructed using concrete. The structures constructed by the Romans were more- free flowing and larger structures.
On the purpose of the buildings, the various remaining Greek Architecture examples are the temples that were built as art objects to honor their gods. Therefore, these temples on the outside were ornate but on the inside, they were plain. Various Roman types of buildings are still preserved in the modern times because of their advances in the material technology particularly concrete. Public spaces such as bathhouses, amphitheatres, public housing, and aqueducts are still tourist attraction sites. Unlike the ancient Greek architecture, the Roman structures were in fact ornate on both the inside and outside, reflecting pleasure pursuit that was and continues to be a fundamental part of the Roman culture.
On the issue of the construction details, typically the Greek architecture is rectilinear. It is also of lintel and post construction. A prehistoric building normally consisted of pediment that was supported by columns which was set on plinth for a base. On the other hand, Romans are actually credited with mastering the dome and the arch, which are the two elements you will not fail to find in the prehistoric Roman architecture but will fail to find in the ancient Greek architecture. The concrete made these structures to appear more complex. Arches are common in bridges, triumphal arches, and aqueducts, while the domes span in wide spaces and are found in the temples, bathhouses, and in emperors’ residences.
On the styles of columns, these columns in fact, are prevalent and crucial supports in both Roman and Greek architecture. Both cultures used the Ionic, Doric, and Corinthian orders that are most easily identifiable through looking at column capitals. The Ancient Greek architecture tends to favor Ionic and Doric columns that have cleaner lines. The Romans on the other hand, preferred more ornate Corinthian style.
In a nut shell, this discussion clearly shows that the Roman building culture was greatly influenced by that of the Greeks. The Romans therefore adopted their architecture element from that of the Greeks and these ancient structures that were constructed during those eras are still strong and important tourists attraction sites in the two cultures.