1. Identify the primary abductors of the hip (three muscles).
a) Gluteus Medius
b) Gluteus Minimus
c) Tensor Fascia Latae
2. What function do the hamstrings have in common with the gluteus maximus?
Both the gluteus maximus and the hamstrings muscles play the extension role. The hamstrings, which are situated at the rear of the thigh, play the role of hip extension and hyper-extension as well as knee flexion. This helps in transferring the power between knee joints and the hips. In addition, it helps in the forward propulsion. Just like the hamstrings, Gluteus maximus play a role in extending the hip in order to enable the upright posture in humans and sustain walking and running.
3. Identify the antagonist to the gluteus maximus in the sagittal plane. How are these muscles synergists in the transverse plane?
The following are the antagonists to the gluteus maximus in the saggital plane: -
a) Tensor Fascia Latae
b) Rectus femoris
During the transverse plane, movements run from one side to another with very minimal vertical movement. These muscles become synergists in this plane in that unlike in the saggital plane where the movements are almost always extension and flexion, the movements here are abduction and adduction. Therefore, the muscles act in concert with the prime mover, to generate the side by side movement.
4. In the sagittal plane, identify the function that most of the adductors perform? Identify the muscle and its action that is an exception to this.
In the sagittal plane, most adductors perform the function of bringing ones legs closer to his midline. They also perform the function of crossing ones leg past the midline of the body. The pectineus muscle is an exception to this. It is responsible for hip flexion.
5. Identify the primary antagonist to the iliopsoas. What function do these two muscles have in common?
The primary antagonists of the iliopsoas are the gluteus maximus and the adductor magnus. The two muscles both function to restore the body in an upright position after stopping. This is done by pulling the pelvis backwards.
6. Identify the six external rotators of the hip. What is the common insertion and line of pull of these muscles?
The six external rotators of the hip are as follows: -
2. Obturator Internus
3. Gemellus Superior
4. Quadratus Femoris
5. Gemellus Inferior
6. Obturator Externus
The common insertion of the six external rotators of the hip is the upper border of greater trochanter.
7. What is the common origin of the hamstring muscles? How is the insertion different for these muscles (two are similar; one is different)?
The common origin of the hamstring muscles is the ischial tuberosity. Though they have a common origin, their insertion is different. Two of them, that is semitendinosus and semimembranosus are inserted medially whereas the biceps femoris is inserted laterally.
8. Identify the quadriceps muscle that has a function other than knee extension. What is this function?
The quadriceps muscle that has a function other than knee extension is the rectus femoris. The muscle alongside Sartorius and iliopsoas are involved in the flexion of the hip.
9. Describe how the gracilis is different from the other adductor muscles. State as many reasons as you can identify.
The gracilis is different from the other adductor muscles of the hip in that unlike the other adductor muscles, it is thin and flattened. The gracilis muscle is also broad above in terms of its structure and narrow and tapering below, something that is unlike the other adductor muscles. It is also the most superficial adductor muscle on the medial part of the thigh. This is to enable the muscle to stabilize and rotate the knee medially. The muscle is able to bring the legs closer to one another on the inside.
10. What is unique about the insertion of the tensor fasciae latae (hint: it has something to do with the name of the muscle)?
The unique thing about the tensor fasciae latae is that it is inserted in between the double layer of the iliotibial band of the fascia lata.