ORGANIZATION AND BEHAVIOR
Tesco stocks a variety of vegetarian products. It is not easy for most people to go for a vegetarian diet given that the requirements often result from medical conditions. The management needs to ensure that all the employees are working towards the fulfillment of the organizational objectives. Theories of employee motivation are important since they enable managers to gather their efforts towards achieving better goals for the organization (Mcreynolds, 2012).
Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs asserts that the motivation of an individual results from their various needs. The needs encompass safety, social needs, self-esteem, self-actualization, and physiological needs. According to this theory, employees seek the satisfaction of needs at a lower level before they satisfy the needs at a higher level. The theory is useful to the management such that it enables them to understand the primary needs of the employees. Consequently, they will ensure the primary needs of the employees hence motivating them tom perform better in the organization.
Herzberg’s Two Factor theory emphasizes the need for employees to work in a hygienic environment. The environment must be conducive for the employees to perform their duties. In addition, there must be other motivational factors such good salary and over-time remuneration (Thomas, 2009). The theory is useful because it makes the management take the welfare of the employees into consideration. As a result, they receive equal pay for what they perform in the organization. It eliminates the bureaucracy of imposing duties on employees by allowing them to work within the set boundaries of the organizational structure.
Based on the McCrae and Costa personality dimensions, motivational theories are also useful for optimal performance from employees. The Equity theory by J. Stacy Adams asserts that the performance of employees’ changes based on their perception of the results of their input. The motivation they have depended on the magnitude of the results derived from their job.
The type of organization must also be suitable for the employee. The organization must be flexible such that the employee can improve their income, status, and position within the organization. An organization can adopt a decentralized system where power and promotion depends on one channel or department of the organization.
Nature of Groups and Group Behavior within Organization Tesco and Local Veggie Shop
Tesco and local veggie shop has a huge volume of clientele to satisfy. When the nature of vegetarian business comes to consideration, it is important to ensure that the satisfaction of the needs of the clients comes first. Tesco uses employee and managerial groups to accomplish the difficult tasks and meet the particular needs of the clients.
The nature of groups and behavior within groups stems for the definition of the term and the types of groups found in business organizations. The term group refers to two or more persons who are interdependent in their interaction for achieving a common goal for the organization. Organizational groups have a common characteristic where individuals share similar objectives for the organization (Bishop, Connors, and Sampford, 2003). In addition, there is also another common feature where individuals work together in unity. Lack of unity distorts the set objectives of the group. The management may decide to set off competition among the different groups in the organization. The competition works in favor of the organization since all the groups put in their best efforts to emerge dominant over the other groups.
There are two types of organizational groups, formal and informal. Formal organizational groups result form conscious creation by the organization. The creation of formal groups results from the organization’s intention to achieve a certain objective. Formal groups improve the performance of all employees through full utilization of their ability, judgment, and aptitude. On the other, there are informal groups, which result from the social interactions of the employees. Informal groups depend on the nature of the personal relationship between the individual employees. In most cases, informal groups do not intend to help the organization to achieve its objectives. Their role is to help the individual employees to meet their personal needs. They also result from the grievances that most employees undergo within the organization.
On the other hand, informal groups have an importance to the organization. During the informal interaction, employees get the opportunity to identify other employees whom they can easily work together within the course of duty. As a result, they get suitable teammates when the organization intends to form formal groups. Personality and work behavior around fellow employees has a significant influence on how employees perform when the organization groups them with other employees. Employees who understand each other at a personal level tend to perform better in similar groups compared to those who do not.
Informal groups have an effect on the performance of formal groups in Tesco’s organizational structure. It is impossible to inhibit the interaction of employees beyond the workplace. The organization must find structures that help it to optimize the performance of its employees.
Different Approaches to Management
The approaches of management are the subject of the classification of the classical school of thought. The classical school further branches into scientific management and the administrative theory.
Scientific management covers the development and origin of scientific management, studies of time and motion, and the Gantt chart. On the other hand, the administrative theory has the general theory covering management and the universal rules of management.
Frederick W. Taylor takes credit for the origin and development of the ideas of scientific management. Scientific management emphasizes organized knowledge instead of the reliance on the rule of the thumb. It seeks to create harmony during group activities and achieve the cooperation of all the team members. Scientific management works towards maximizing the output of the organization rather than restricting that output to a certain level. Scientific management also seeks to enhance the development of the worker’s potential. In the end, the prosperity of the organization comes from the improved potential of the worker (Anderson, Sweeney, and Williams, 2000).
The administrative theory is another part of management advance by the school of though. The theory focuses on the fundamental principles. Henry Fayol lays down the important segments of the administrative theory. They include parts such as division of labor, authority over the subordinates, discipline at the workplace, unity of command, remuneration of employees, centralization, hierarchy, and stability of the staff members.
The Bureaucratic theory championed by Weber in 1920 falls under the administrative ideologies of the school of thought. The theory lays emphasis on the existence of structures of authority and a description of the organization with respect to the relations of the different authorities. Bureaucratic management is highly formal, structured, and impersonal (Anderson, Sweeney, and Williams, 2000). The structure has clearly defined rules and regulations that govern the entire organization.
However, there are several criticisms leveled against the classical theorists. The most important criticism is that their ideas are not applicable to all management situations, universally. They fail to cater for the dynamics of administration.
Anderson, D., Sweeney, D. and Williams, T. (2000). An introduction to management science. 1st ed. Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College Pub.
Bishop, P., Connors, C. and Sampford, C. (2003). Management, organisation, and ethics in the public sector. 1st ed. Aldershot: Ashgate Pub. Group.
Mcreynolds, J. (2012). Motivational theories & psychology. 1st ed. Delhi: English Press.
Thomas, K. (2009). Intrinsic motivation at work. 1st ed. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.