Traffic crashes is an exceptional cause of deaths in the United States. The number of deaths occasioned by traffic crashes is higher compared to deaths caused by terrorism. Moreover, it is discernible that damages consequential from traffic crashes account for approximately four hundred billion dollars in the United States. The immense deaths and losses caused by the traffic crashes has compelled scholars to write works that detail the causes of traffic crashes and legislation on traffic crashes. This is in order to tackle the ever rising number of traffic crashes by emphasizing the causes of the crashes. The authors have also discussed recommendations on ways to reduce the traffic crashes. Several causes have been pointed out by the authors as fundamental causes of traffic crashes. Several works of intellects will be deliberated on the paper to highlight the general causes of traffic crashes.
Abbas, Hefny and Abu-Zidan, (2011), confer that in order to reduice road carnages,safety measures is indispensable. The fundamental safety measures such as using of seat belts, strict supervision of vehicles operating on the roads and increasing safety features on vehicles will play an immense role to reduce traffic crashes. The society is exposed to countless human deaths, maiming of body parts and other monetary valued losses. Abbas, Hefny and Abu-Zidan argue that majority of people who lose their lives in traffic crashes are aged between fifteen to forty-five years old. This is an ultimate population that chiefly consist of the working and pre working population. Both the state and federal governments have to set up stringent regulations to warrant the safety of all road users. This is is through enactment of laws, which heavily punish traffic requirement offenders such as the need to use seat belts, observation of speed limits and other traffic rules. Additionally,the government has to invest more on traffic police and other traffic facilities to ensure there are reduced number of traffic crashes. The author affirms that human reasons are the primiary cause of traffic crashes.
Graham, Bartley in his book titled “Traffic Accidents: Causes and Outcomes,” upholds the sentiments presented by Abbas, Hefny and Abu-Zidan, (2011). The author confirms that traffic crashes can be attributed to human causes. The predominant human causes accentuated in the work include lack of observing the traffic rules and regulations by drivers such as overspeeding, driving under the influence and ignorance among drivers. The causes make roads to be extremely dangerous for people’s use because of few individuals flouting all the rules. The author settles that traffic officials play a decisive role in traffic crashes occurences.This is particularly the case when traffic officials engage in racial stops and checks on the streets. This results to itemized traffic offenders to walk away scot free despite failing to observe traffic requirements. The author also highlight other causes of traffic crashes in the book to be because of poor climatic conditions such as poor visibility and the stateof roads being used by road users. Some roads are in poor states which facilitate ocurence of road accidents.This is evident in road structure, which are in contour form and exceedingly narrow.
Contrary to assertions presented by the previous authors, Maxton, (2004), concludes that the revolution of traffic industry will be a solution to the traffic crashes being observed in the country. The author bases his arguments on scientific foundations where he affirms that safety technological innovation lead to less traffic crashes. This is through the government and vehicle manufacturers investing in researches to design safety features in vehicles that reduces impacts of traffic crashes. The author higlights that governments should seek to prevent traffic crashes instead of addressing them when they occur. Creating of awareness among road users on the need to observe traffic requirements and the rigorous punishments on traffic offenses will be a preventve measure. An informed road user is a pivotal step towards preventing occurrence of careless traffic crashes that can be easily prevented. Maxton, (2004), confers that human manipulated casues are a chief causes of traffic crashes. The author suistains that human ignorance when using roads has resulted to exceptionally high numbers of traffic crashes that can be effortlessly prevented. Despite the presence of excellent roads in the United States, traffic crashes prevalence is remarkably high because of human causes. Human causes such as driving under the influence, uunderage driving, overspeeding and distruction driving account for he highests number of traffic crashes in the United States.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Adminstration presents a statistical contention on trafic crashes. Accorsding to reports presented on their official website, the NHTSA confirms that light vehicles play a pivotal role in the occurences of traffic crashes. This is merely because ninety six percent of vehicles involved in traffic crashes are light vehicles. This is atrtributed to the less precautionary measures that manufacturers of light vehicles effect in the process. Technological safety advance measures in light vehicles is limited making the use to incur extreme injuries in case of a traffic crash. The websites also confirms that teenages whose years array between fourteen to eighteen years are heavily engaged in traffic crashes. The organization has the responsibility of ensuring that road users are educated on the use of roads and the regulations guiding road usage. Different states have different road laws. This has been a setback to traffic crashes mangagement and control. Some states have less stringent laws to punish traffic offendersa. This has resulted to high number of traffic crashes in the states. The website concludes that equal level of traffic regulations should be observed in the whole of United States irrespective of the states. This will play a fundamental role in reducing the accidents reported because of loosen traffic regulations.
Noam Noked, (2010), approves that human beings are perpetrators of traffic crashes. This is merely because the definition causes and prevention of traffic crashes is typified by human beings. Traffic crashes are fashioned by human negligence in effecting road regulations and laws. Noked confirms that traffic regulations laws such as the Highway Related Statutes for example, title 23, which stresses regulations when using highways and title 49, which confirms the parameter for transportation are abused by people. Despite the laws being clear on the requirements of road users and punishment for violation on the requirements, it is still visible that people drive under the influence, fail to observe speed limits and nosedive to secure seat belts a safety precaution. This has resulted to unusually high cases of traffic crashes leading to loss of approximately four hundred billion dollars in property and human deaths. The author recommends that stringent laws and policies should be enacted to strengthen the traffic rules available. Moreover, there is the need of traffic officers to engage in random routine checks on the conditions of vehicles on the roads. This is to ensure that illegal drivers and road unworthy vehicles are impounded.
The top road accident causes are emphasized by Pines, (2013). Three primary causes of traffic crashes highlighted by the author are human oriented causes, road related causes and law related causes. Human oriented causes are established to be the outstanding cause of traffic crashes. Human causes are attributed to carelessness or ignorance among people using the roads. Human lack of attention is unmistakable in terms of people failing to stick to rules and road signs advising drivers on the requirements of using the roads. Ignorance is apparent from lack of knowledge on the regulations and laws governing traffic in the United States. Human causes are evident in terms of over speeding or driving below the required speed limits, driving under the influence of alcohols or any other substance that can deter fair and clear judgment, underage driving and presence of destruction while driving. Other causes highlighted include the road structure and condition. Roads condition may play a vital role in implicating of traffic crashes. For example, narrow roads and two way drive roads have high affinity of traffic crashes. Other reported cause is the law oriented causes. This is where laws established are less severe making the road users to relax in observing them.
In a book written by Porter, (2011), titled “Handbook of Traffic Psychology,” the book deliberates on psychological aspects of traffic crashes. The mind state of a traffic user defines their safety. This simply means that presence of traffic distractions play a central role in resulting of traffic crashes. This is attributed to the behavioral being of the road users. Any factor that affects the behavior of the road user simply leads to a risk of traffic crashes. The presence of traffic crashers causes such as over speeding can be accredited to the psychological being of the driver. The mind state of an over speeding driver may be under the influence hence leading to impaired visual and judgments. The author also concludes that pedestrians who are other traffic users also play a role in castigating of traffic crashes. This is especially when pedestrians fail to observe detailed road requirements such as crossing roads at points which are not designated, walking in areas which are exclusively for vehicles and acting as distractions to the drivers. The author concludes that in order to address the situation it is necessary for the road users both ion vehicles and those in feet to be aware of the role they play in ascertaining the safety of all the road users.
In a book written by the United Nations Human Settlement Program, the book discusses traffic crashes as a perilous threat in the modern society. The book highlights the reasons behind urban centers beings hubs for high rates of traffic crashes in comparison to rural areas. This is endorsed to the fact that urban centers are customarily densely populated both in terms of vehicles on roads and the number of people using the roads on foot. A densely populated urban center has a high affinity of traffic crashes because of the exceptional traffic population. This is contrary to the cause of rural settings. Rural settings usually have limited numbers of road users leading to limited numbers of traffic crashers. The book further presents a discussion on the existence of gaps in the road policies and regulations which act as a stimulant to traffic crashes. The existing laws and regulations such as Title 23 have to be strengthened to guarantee that they are effective in handling the issue of traffic crashes. The book is concluded by affirming recommendations to the both the public and the traffic law officers on the manner to conduct themselves while using the roads. An informed road user contributes by about eighty percent in avoiding of a traffic crash.
Ferguson, Preusser, Lund, Zador & Ulmer, (2008), allege that majority of accidents occur merely because of people being in a rush with the hope of saving time. The authors feature their assumption on the conclusion that majority of the traffic crashes occur during the rush hours. A compelling example of a rush hour is evident in the mornings. This is when people have to rush to places of work, schools and businesses. This is also apparent in the evening when people have to rush back home. Based on the studies concluded by the authors they finalize people to be the central reason for occurrence of traffic crushes. Other causes such as poor visibility and the state of road are presented by the author as secondary sources that play a minimal role in road carnage. The secondary causes of traffic crashes are directly connected to human carelessness while driving. The authors also conclude that the fundamental preventive measures for traffic crashes is majorly by creating awareness among the road users. This is through ensuring that road users understand road signs and other road regulations. The road users have to be both the drivers and the pedestrians using the roads.
Sagberg, (1999), in the article “Road accidents caused by drivers falling asleep” carried out a study on the impact of drivers who fell asleep while driving. The study was achieved through presenting questionnaires to drivers. The study concluded that sleep plays a minimal role in traffic crashes. The author resolved the study by conferring with declarations made by other intellects on the general causes of traffic crashes. Human oriented causes are attributed to be the major cause of traffic crashes. Nevertheless, the author concludes that human causes can be easily addressed through ensuring that people are aware of the risks they pose on traffic crashes occurrence. The author in the article also affirms that the government has to strengthen laws and policies that regulate the use of roads. Traffic law offenders ought to be subjected to severe punishment to deter them from repeating the offenses. Stringent regulations on road usage will surety that several benefits are realized on the road users. The apparent benefits include reduced traffic crashes, reduced number of deaths and injuries that are because of traffic crashes, minimal property loses in terms of accidents and finally safe roads for the roads users.
Traffic crashes account for a large number of deaths in the United States. Additionally, traffic crashes cause immense loss of properties amounting to billions of dollars. Three critical reasons have been presented by several intellects as eminent causes of traffic crashes. The first conclusive cause of traffic crashes is human related causes. These are principally traffic crashes causes that are castigated by humans. The second cause presented is climatic causes. These are chiefly effects such as poor visibility, heavy downpours or snowing which lead to traffic crashes. The conclusive cause is law and road related cause. These are causes of traffic crashes merely because of the state of road and legations enacted.
Abbas, A. K., Hefny A. F., & Abu-Zidan, F. (2011). Seatbelts and road traffic collision injuries. World Journal of Emergency Surgery , 6-18.
Bartley, G. P. (2008). Traffic Accidents: Causes and Outcomes. New York: Nova Publishers.
Maxton, G. P. (2004). Time for a Model Change: Re-engineering the Global Automotive Industry. New York: Cambridge University Press.
NHTSA. (2013, 2013). Retrieved October 22, 2013, from www.nhtsa.gov: http://www.nhtsa.gov/NCSA
Noked, N. (2010). Providing a Corrective Subsidy to Insurers for Success in Reducing Traffic Accidents. Harvard Law School .
Pines, M. (2013 , February 19). Drivers.com. Retrieved October 23, 2013, from www.drivers.com: http://www.drivers.com/article/1173/
Porter, B. E. (2011). Handbook of Traffic Psychology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Programme, U. N. (2007). Enhancing Urban Safety and Security: Global Report on Human Settlements 2007. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.
Ferguson, S. A., Preusser, E. F., Lund, A. K., Zador, P. L., & Ulmer, R. G. (1995). Daylight saving time and motor vehicle crashes: the reduction in pedestrian and vehicle occupant fatalities. American Journal of Public Health,. 85, 92–95.
Sagberg, F. (1999). Road accidents caused by drivers falling asleep. Journal of Accident Analysis & Prevention , 639-649.