Describe the factors to consider when promoting effective communication.
Effective communication takes listening skills. The Manila Bulletin (2010) explains how active listening means getting into the head of who is talking. This means trying to understand his or her point of view about what is being said. Cooper (1997) explains how practicing good listening makes a good tool for communicating because it shows concern for what the other person is saying so if there is need to answer a question then listening gives meaning to what is heard. Then it is possible to analyze the information so it is interpreted correctly. Other parts of communication, according to Craig (1995), Leeds-Hurwitz (1995), Wilson and Sabee (2003) includes focusing on how people behave between one another during engaging conversations. It also means negotiating what is real with adapting to social and cultural contexts and identities (p. 10). When working with other people using personal experiences for communicating ideas is helpful for exchanging ideas and for problem solving. Getting everyone's ideas and paying attention to one another, helps communicate as well (Glenn & Pood, 1989, p. 12-15). The usefulness of active listening when someone else talks for gaining information is a main part of communicating. Listening helps to get inside another person's point of view (Manila Bulletin, 2010, NA).
Paying attention when talking with another person allows a more intimate setting for the person sharing his or her point of view and promotes understanding between the speaker and the listener. Improving this focus to pay attention when listening builds better communication because there is less chance to miss what the other person says. Developing this ability for listening promotes social collaborations for solving problems as well as responding to questions with understanding. Understanding what someone says, in part, begins with listening and this in turn promotes communication. Relationships with others rely in part, on building effective communication and again, the ability for listening frames how communication develops into satisfactory or unsatisfactory interchanges. In addition, focusing on listening gives more meaning to what is heard and therefore, provides a better means for analyzing and interpreting the conversation (Cooper, 1997, 75+).
Depending on the conversation, listening to other peoples' ideas provides opportunities for applying new ways of doing things or thinking about things. Communicating with others brings more opportunities to learning and exploring the world in different ways. Frisk (2007) explains how, “If you can listen attentively even under the least enjoyable circumstances, you will come out ahead" (1). McCauley (2001) explains how communication is made of complex varieties of measurable aspects such as "audiology" and "speech-language pathology" that have to do with connecting the way people pronounce words, use words, construct phrases. These are parts of the complexity of what it takes people to communicate along with the way they see the world (p. 2) so that having an understanding about this adds to the other parts of what goes on between people for effective communication.
2. Explain how people from different backgrounds may use and/or interpret communication methods in different ways.
Personal experiences create personal perspectives of the world around each individual according to Holliday, Hyde, and Kullman (2004). Therefore, accepting and understanding how this affects communication is a starting point for understanding that sometimes people from different backgrounds need to use and/or interpret communication methods in different ways. Having this kind of understanding about how communication depends on different ways people view the world because of their culture, their religious beliefs, their politics, even their gender helps focus on finding different ways to find common ground that allows mutual understanding (p. 163).
The differences among people requires understanding different points of view of "other people from different backgrounds and cultures according to Ellis (1999).Do this also means not "judging them or making assumptions that have nothing to do with what the other person is saying." When having experiences encountering people from other cultures, who speak different languages, have learning disabilities, or are hearing impaired there are ways to communicate through different methods that create a common ground of understanding such as using gestures, emotional expression, even by pointing at objects (p.113).
Cultures have different layers of individual understanding that can separate people and communication efforts but there are ways to communicate through patterns of association that bring understanding. This happens with applying existing understandings that people have about other people in general such as if, someone is middle class and if they have a racial identity as examples. This means groups have "a network of communicative relationships." This has to do with the group having a particular perspective of reality because they have "communicative behaviors that mark membership" in their particular social group (Ellis, 1999, p. 113).
Communication is a form of behavior according to Ellis (1999) and therefore has responsiveness for interaction. Behavior that already exists in people because of how they identify self with a particular social group or groups makes how they behave while communicating with another sometimes very apparent. When different people have communication encounters recognizing behavior patterns while they express them self even if they do not speak the same language or have difficulty such as hearing this ability can help communicate. In a way if a room full of people who are deaf but do not know sign language have to communicate then they would be likely able to communicate through common methods of facial expression, gestures, and (of course through pointing at objects). In the same manner, different people who may speak different languages no matter the reason can communicate using the same kinds of methods (p. 113)
3. Explain how to access extra support or services to enable individuals to communicate effectively.
Depending on what kind of communication a person wants assistance, support, or services the list is quite extensive. For supporting communication efforts, a person may want to get sibling support. Gardner and Cutrona (2004) explain that sibling support can assist younger sisters or brother helping them communicate by helping with emotional support about adjusting to school, moves to new countries, cities, and schools. "Children with supportive siblings are less likely to be depressed." Whether it is conditions like moves, having to learn a new language, or even a developmentally disabled child, having the assistance of a sibling is a valuable support system for helping a child communicates effectively (p. 503).
People who speak a different language than the one where they live can also use their children as translators. Valdes (2003) explains how it is common practice for families to use younger members for this purpose. "It is about youngsters who carry out the very hard work of interpreting and translating when they are selected by their families to mediate communication between themselves and the outside world." These young interpreters possess valuable skills by speaking the language of where they live when other family members may not so they are support for mediating communication. This can also take place between minority and majority communities (p. xvii).
Forestal (2005) explains how deaf people can receive support and assistance for communication through trained interpreters. In fact deaf people working as interpreters are becoming a new professional part of society. Whether in court, the hospital, medical emergency rooms, at work sites, conferences, in theatres, church, and training programs having deaf interpreters is available for deaf people needing assistance communicating. "You can find them in classrooms in deaf schools and in mainstream programs for deaf children across the country, primarily in major cities." The support deaf interpreters provide for those needing communication help come from training with the American Sign Language (ASL) group. This can be written or spoken English as well as international sign language. In addition, this type of communication support is available for deaf-blind people. Deaf students in deaf schools having historically served as interpreters for communication for other deaf students. "Deaf students would clarify, explain, or reinforce by repetition for each other what was being said orally or by signing from the teachers" (p. 235).
Information technology (IT) is a means for deaf people and others with communication problems to use that connects to the telephone system in a home or at work. These machines are also found in most public places like police, courts, medical facilities, and other social support locations. According to Murray and Aspinall (2006), "Inclusion in the twenty-first century - much hyped as a desirable practice in decent sounding legislation around the world - must involve access to the full range of information and communication technology that has empowered and liberated so many." For whatever reason there are people who have difficulties communicating. With IT, the options for getting the support needed for communicating provides a genuine means for effective discourse even when the person is unable to say a word (p. 8).
The fact is no matter what kind of communication need a person may need support or assistance if they have a computer they can use search engines such as Google to help them find local, regional, state, national, and even, international groups that can assist directly or direct them to the kind of help they need. Those without ability to use or having computer access also can get help through their doctor, church, social service agencies where they live.
4. Analyze the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition.
Paul (2001) explains how early identification of communication delays means, "Successful intervention results in the child's being able use the forms and functions targeted in the intervention to effect real communication." In other words, the importance of early identification of speech, language, and communication delays and disorders instead of late recognition assures the child is a better communicator throughout his or her development into an adult. The potential risks of late recognition very well might result in further language and communication difficulties making the task of therapy more complex making the process more difficult. We also must be able to show that intervention has led to changes in language behavior that would not occur if no intervention were provided (p. 62).
Oakley (2004) describes the importance and connection between human cognitive development and language communication as an important fundamental process. By age 2, child language ability for communication and thought connect. In other words, cognitive development relies on a child's ability for language and communication (p. 40).
Early identification of a child's speech, language, and communication requires comparing where the child's language skill compares with standard language learning. The assessment looks at "semantic, syntactic, phonological, and pragmatic skills that would be next in the typical developmental sequence and targeting these skills will identify the goals of intervention." Paul (2001) further explains how there exists numerous things that determine what, how, and where for early interventions for successful outcome to take place. Helping the child become a normal language learner there has to be the decision of what to change that is causing the communication problem. This could be a hearing problem causing the child communication problems. "For a child with a mild hearing impairment, for example, if the loss is discovered during early childhood and amplification can be used to achieve normal or nearly normal hearing." With early recognition of such a problem and the developmental lacking skills are corrected then "normal acquisition could proceed." Identifying communication problems in a child resulting from a brain injury then would help determine if a medical and therapy intervention for restoring language ability means a better chance for the child getting on track educationally. "Once the brain's normal plasticity is geared up to overcome the damage, further intervention might not be needed and language learning could proceed more or less normally" (p. 62).
Early identification of a child's impaired language skills blocking communication looks at how teaching "words and grammatical morphemes in sentences, to produce a broader range of semantic relations, or to use language more flexibly and appropriately" then provides the child with the means for better communication even though more therapy might be needed later. The main point here is the earlier the identification of any communication problem the earlier it can be treated and help the child have a better quality of life. An example is identifying and helping a child with word-finding problem for identifying specific items when asked. By teaching, the child how to use different methods for recalling vocabulary for conversation might teach the phonetic break down of specific words, or try thinking of rhyming words (Paul, 2001, p. 61).
5. Explain how multi-agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication.
Multi-agency teamwork together supporting speech, language, and communication for identifying, assessing, and developing language abilities, interventions, and support. Doctors, specialists, pathologists, social workers, educators work toward identifying and assessing a person's, and particularly a child's communication development level. Paul (2001) explains the multi-agency teams function as more than technicians for effective language interventions function but are part of a multidisciplinary group looking for the most effective intervention methods that comes from a range of decisions. "Each completes an independent evaluation of the client and comes up with a separate set of recommendations, which are reported to the team and the client's family" (p. 64). After establishing communication between the team members, each has different functions. All members share information toward developing the best plan for the individual with communication, language, and speech issues. Paul (2001) explains, "Assessment is collaborative in that one individual may do all or most of the interaction with the child, whereas others observe or make suggestions for the interactor to use during the assessment process. Team members work together whenever possible." Identifying when, what, and why the problems developed are part of the assessment (p. 22). Depending on the age of the individual, the team of experts approaches the support from different means. Young children may have a parent notice the child has speech, hearing, or other communication issues and bring it to the attention of a pediatrician or a family doctor. If it is a school age child, the teacher may notice such issues and notify the parents even suggesting specialists through the school system.
As part of the team, the clinician provides further assessment. Paul (2001) explains, "Once adequate information about the history and context of the problem has been gathered from review of the case history and interview results, the clinician is ready to develop the assessment plan." Keeping to working with children, this stage of the support requires the expertise of the clinician. Everything centers on the age of the child, if they are in school, and the extent of the issue. Taking the information from the other team members, while remembering, "Communication skills usually are not more advanced than other areas of functioning, so general developmental level provides a reasonable baseline for beginning to evaluate communicative performance." In the event, any additional evaluation is required concerning the level of "communicative skills are above or below this baseline, appropriate adjustments in the assessment can be made" (p. 22). This stage of the teamwork moves into deciding the intervention plan.
6. Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication.
Play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language, and communication especially during the stage of developing language through peer interaction with normal speaking interchanges according to Paul (2001). Using peers as communication models is a typical supportive interaction for development of speech, language and communication. "The idea behind this approach is that normally speaking peers provide models that are slightly above the language of the impaired child but not too far above, because of the typical peer's own still- developing language stage." The assumption is peer conversation is more engaging and natural than the communication between children and an adult including parents. This is especially true when the conversation takes place between similar developmental levels (p. 374).
Interactions between peers among children should incorporate modeling by children "who not only demonstrate normal language competence but also show interest in handicapped peers, willingness to engage in play with them for extended periods, and responsiveness to the conversational bids of their language-impaired peers." Language learners also gain better understanding from modeling the discussions with peers. Paul (2001) explains existing studies show "that even very structured forms of peer modeling can be achieved and can help increase the use of communication by children with language disorders." The idea is for peer modeling to provide better opportunities for language generalizations and for practice toward communicative behavior.
Important to the learning process for language acquisition for communication using play and activities looks at ways to introduce new vocabulary into the conversations. Play and other engaging activities for promoting and supporting communication opportunities is a fundamental intervention for working to build children cognitive abilities in language development and communication. The use of functional play and activities is also a practical method for developing language and communication in children, second language learners, and other issues affecting a child's ability for language and communication (Paul, 2001, p. 357).
Creating environments for play and activities that encourage and aid cognitive development for language among children is part of the natural way people learn. No matter the communication issue, the more opportunities play or learning activities that provide children interactions for using language connect to positive outcomes for correcting language outcomes. Paul (2001) assures that natural settings for play and activities making children comfortable provide a suitable environment that promotes and supports communication through learning language. This is true for second language learners, developmentally impaired learners including children with issues for language acquisition (p. 357).
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