Timbuktu and Jenne and Duarte Barbosa on the Swahili City States
In ancient times there existed numerous civilizations we are not even aware of. Till our days we know about the signs of several civilizations which, in spite of their pre-domini age, impress with great achievements in different spheres of activity.
In the given paper I would like to compare two civilizations – Timbuktu and Duarte Borbosa.
I would like to begin with geographical position of these civilizations. The first existed on the area, which is now known as Nigeria, Africa. The second lived on the territory of modern India. The difference in geographical location influenced the development of cultures and spheres of activities which were popular among those representatives.
The facts show that both civilizations were highly developed. Both had their architecture systems, principles of political division of power, religions. Representatives of Timbuktu were Muslims, representatives of Duarte Barbosa – believed in the Lord.
Both civilizations had their architectural standards: Timbuktu built their temples and homes of stone, Duarte Barbosa people already used mortar as the linking element in building.
As well as geographical location of the civilizations was different, the food differed too. The first population was aware of the production of milk and butter, they planted corn. For drinking they used incredibly good water from a well. The second population ate fish, as they lived near the sea, rice and flesh of different animals, various fruits were popular in that settlement.
It is worth saying that both of those were very rich and had their natural and material wealth. Salt was one of the minerals which brought income to the population of Timbuktu. The settlers of the Duarte Barbosa were known for its silk which they sold and got money, ivory was one of the most expensive materials for stuff making, gold was known too.
As for a working power both civilizations used different animals. Timbuktu people used camels, as the hot climate didn’t allow other animals to travel for long distances and transfer the salt dug in the pits. In India people used elephants and horses for their domestic and agriculture activities.
Both populations used different fabrics for making clothes. Timbuktu made their clothes of cotton and the Barbosa people used silk mostly. We may state about a high level of cultural and educational development of the settlements as at those times there existed the professions of a lawyer, merchants, doctors, judges, priests and other learned men who performed various activities, according to their occupation. As well as the buildings and temples were built, we may claim about the existence of an architect profession.
Both civilizations had their own law and jury systems, also codes of trade. In Timbuktu, the king gave an order that all the merchants, who come to their settlement firstly had to sold their goods for a very low price, so that his population could attain profit, also merchants were obliged to stay in those settlements forever and work for its civilians. But in Duarte Barbosa the laws and trade traditions were extremely different. Population met all the merchants and guests with great respect and they always paid good money for all the goods, so that to please the tradesmen. They were polite, generous and hospitable.
As we may see, there are more differences between these civilizations, which wwere provoked by their location mostly. But there also were similarities and we may suppose that there were some connections through the merchants and travelers. Existence of those populations brings the mystery into the history of the development of our world, as we may observe the presence of high developed notions and things, which show high level of intellectual and cultural unicity, which appeared long time before the modern civilizations of human beings.