The construction of steel buildings are found before fifty years ago, but not full concept of using steel in the building is not used. The first steel frame building were built in Chicago on 1885 that was Home Insurance Building it consists of 10 story’s with a height of 42. During the Second World War concept of steel frame structure was practically used. When the concept was well known component for steel structure was used to build the frame quickly, by this method we can complete our project within several interval of time. It saves time and money.
The concept of simple connection was introduced many years ago in steel structures are designed by assuming that a beam to column joints is pinned. From these assumptions, they disregard the true behavior of joints in moment. This kind of design is considered by many of the scientific community. The resistance must be checked in the individual basis and it has no simple rules in its assessment. The joints are well known. It doesn’t take advantage of the structural benefits. The simple rules do not have any benefits.
The economic benefits of simple joints are well known, and much has been written about their use in braced frames, but does not take the advantages of structural benefits. Moreover, the seldom design does not have any rules on its analysis. Also, design of frames using them is difficult and cumbersome. In fact, the issue with the design becomes more difficult because the rotational behavior of beam to column connections is not provably accounted for and experimentally.
Another situation is that the connection is designed to transfer tension from a beam to the column or to brace. The bolts then may be in shear or the tensile condition or combined shear and tensile.
A characteristic of partial composite beam evaluates in the beam test and it also has the push test. It is normalized with respect to the fully composite moment, Mfc. The percent shear connection is given by Qn/AsFy, where Qn is the sum of the shear connector strength between the points of maximum and zero moment. As is an area of steel cross section, and Fy is yield. The stress that produces the steel cross section has three values Y2, which is the distance from the steel section. The curve was generated with the center of effective concrete. The curves are generated with WW16*31. It is represented in wide range of power. The Mn/Mfc is just 0.9 is the partial connection value of 0.7. it is extended to predict the moment capacity of 0.7. it is also ectended to predict the moment capacity of 0.9. We have also predicted the shear connected capacity of 0.9. The sensitivity on the parameter is difficult. We can use two test analyses to test the different range of parameters. Strength and beam test is used as confirmatory test. This test is the part of another research project. The reni forced structure is a tensile strength, which are reinforced ductility. It uses the reinforcing bars. This region will cause cracking and it improves the behavior of the final structure. The common method is called as pre tensioning. It has high relative strength and good tolerance value.
A value of Mn/Mfc of about 0.9 is obtained from a partial shear connection value of 0.7. This relation can be extended to evaluating test results, in that if a measured to predict moment
For steel design
Effective span =7m
Permanent action =16.3 KN/m
Imposed action =14.9 Kn/m
Concrete Fck= 35N/mm
ReinforecemtFyk= 500 N/mm
Diameter of the main reinforcement= 12mm
Shear links -8mm
2. Cross sectional size of beam= (Fck) (Fyk) + (Pa) (Ia) +Sl
= (35) (500)/ (14.9) (16.3) +8
Increase in the cost; however the percentage increase in the in place cost of the composite beam for these situations will be minor. Certainly in view of the questions that have been raised regarding the strength of the studs, the increase is Results were described for a recent study conducted at warranted.
1.”Concrete mix design” design procedure. Web. 16 April 2014.http://concrete.union.edu/general.htm
2.” The design of reinforcement of concrete building structure “, UPO.Web. 16 April 2014.
3.” Structural design”, FAO. Web. 16 April 2014.http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2433e/i2433e04.pdf
4.”optimization in structural engineering”, Autodesk. Web. 16 April 2014.