There is an increasing number of electric cars in the world, with the US expecting to have 1 million electric cars by the end of 2015. Arguably, it is easy to increase the number of electric cars but difficult to increase electricity generating capacity at the same rate. Generating capacity to cater for the number of electric cars. The basic problem with electric vehicles require an overnight charging to ensure the car is fully charged when owners need it to commute in the morning. Any given grid can provide a certain amount of excess electric supply which it can devote to the problem. However, when the number of cars is large and beyond the capacity it is not possible to charge all of them. Nissan Leaf uses a lithium-ion battery that need to charge for 8 hours at a 240-volt charging dock. Other cars using lead-acid batteries take between 6 to 8 hours to charge at a standard outlet of 110 volts. Charging of electric vehicles is time consuming, unreliable and expensive to maintain.
EV’s are working with electrical motors, and they used batteries to provide the needed amount of energy for the engine. To increase their usage, rechargeable batteries are starting in the EVs because batteries have finite energy in it, and they need to be charged when they died out. To solve this problem, there are several trends. First one is like the gasoline stations; fast battery charging/swapping stations should build. The second trend is using solar power and storing the energy inside in the rechargeable batteries. The final solution is to increase the batteries activity time with using different connection systems.
However these three trends are applying at the moment, and there is a gap in those three trends. The gap is that however there is a fast charging/swapping station, good batteries in terms of efficiency and life cycle these cars need to be charged in anywhere and this charging period consumes time from the people. My solution comes up with a new idea, will fill this gap and made a novelty in the ground transportation. Using the wireless power transmission techniques, Faradays laws interpretation, and well optimized charging tunnels, my solution try to end the consuming time for battery charging.
Despite the benefits realized through electric cars, public excitement over Electric vehicles has not fully blossomed. The cause is an exorbitant production cost and challenges that hamper the use of revolutionary vehicles. Big investment plays a big role in addressing charging process associated with electric vehicles making developers and battery makers to reduce production level from 500 to 225 as a result of production and charge issues. The biggest issues associated with electric vehicles is where to re-charge. It is important to increase the number of charge station to address the problem. For instance, Tesla has unveiled electric-charging stations where six are operational and has the plan to install additional stations throughout the country . The federal government participates and promote the use of an electric car and in addressing charging issues by establishing. The government spent $ 100 million to install charging stations that are available to the public and resupply electric vehicle’s battery in three to six hours. The rate of recharge station installed for public use is effective compared to trickle charger provided by carmaker that at times take 10 to 20 hours when charging. There are over 30 public charging station including direct-current fast chargers and level 2 chargers installed by West Coast electric highway project .
The second trend is using solar power and storing the energy inside in the rechargeable batteries. Use of solar-powered electric vehicle can be used to address reduce charging period and improve the efficiency of battery in electric vehicles. Installation of solar panels in electric vehicles seeks to address recharge issue and address anxiety among drivers of electric vehicles by preventing depletion of a car battery. Solar panels transform sunlight into electric energy used to charge the battery when driving or when driving in a location without an electric charging station. the solar cell is very important factor of the amount of power that is providing for the load where the load is the battery of the solar powered electrical car.
There are five main types of batteries using in the EVs. These are lead-acid batteries, Nickel-Metal Batteries, Lithium-Ion Batteries, Nickel-Zinc (Ni-Zn) batteries and, Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries. Their common feature of all these battery types is their recharging feature. Lead Acid batteries have high leakage current, and they are leaking while they are not working. Hence, their working state of charge (SOC) is only %28. However, their low-cost and light weighted structure makes them available for the EVs . Nickel Metal Batteries energy densities are higher than the lead acid batteries. But, they are again operating in %20-%50 SOC. Lithium-Ion batteries have excellent performance on electronics and medical applications. Also, they have 100Wh/kg energy and one of the highest life cycles among the other battery types. Like the other type of the batteries their working SOC range is only 18 percent. Ni-Zn and Ni-Cd batteries are again similar to the other three types of the batteries. But they are differentiating in working conditions. Their durability is higher than the other types of the batteries. However they are more resistive to the environmental changes, and their costs are higher than the other types of the batteries.
For increasing the batteries power supply to the load, battery packs are using in the industry. The battery pack of Tesla Roadster is weighted 450 kg and has the energy of 53kWh . The battery pack design consists of thousands of battery cells and series and parallel connections. The power optimization for EVs is done for the cells optimum working levels. For the optimum operating levels, manufacturers design the battery packs. Parallel connections increase the lifetime of the batteries with increase the current exit from a battery and series connections increase the voltage levels of the systems.
There are advanced developed that are being undertaken to address morning surprise among electric vehicle owners in an event where they forget to plug in the power. Firms such as BMW Groups are developing wireless inductive charger technology with similar speeds as cable when the user parks the car. Premium market electric cars are seen as major part of automobile future. The new charging system is designed to work with car batteries and are under development. BMW has installed its i3 and i8 hybrid sports car with a quick charging system. The new induction system is developed to work with car batteries and cars under development. The inductive charging system has the advantage of being user-friendly compared to the current charger that requires connections. Electric vehicles will be charged through a wireless system. The system will comprise of two components including a primary coil installed at the base of the garage while the secondary coil will be installed on the floor of the car . An alternating magnetic field will transmit from the primary coil to the secondary coil at a rate of 3.6 kW. The power is enough to charge fully high-voltage batteries in three hours.
BMW asserts that the prototype system has the efficiency of 90 percent and charge the BMW i8 in less than three hours. The firm is working to boost charge rate to 7 kW that can charge a BMW i3 overnight. There are other advantages of the wireless charging system as it will not be affected by whether and can be installed outdoors and indoors. There are plans to develop a series of coils that are connected to an electric current in highways. The receiving coils attached to the bottom of the car resonate as the vehicle speed, creating magnetic fields. According to a study conducted at Stanford, metallic elements of the car can drastically disturb electromagnetic fields . The wireless charging system will have the capacity to fast charge an electric vehicles when stationary or in motion. Inductive charging system is fast, safe and expected to exceed 90 percent efficiency. It is will replace conductive charging system in the future and address the anxiety of battery depletion. The wireless system charge electric vehicles through by making the process straightforward and convenient for drivers. The approach will revolutionize electric vehicles because it will work like a universal charging station, solving the issue of multiple plugs for different car model when battery charge depletes .
The basic problem with electric vehicles require an overnight charging to ensure the car is fully charged when owners need it to commute in the morning. Any given grid can provide a certain amount of excess electric supply which it can devote to the problem. The wireless charging system will have the capacity to fast charge an electric vehicles when stationary or in motion.
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