Motivation is typically defined as an individual’s willingness to act or behave in a particular way. Motivation is a result of an individual’s cognition. People interpret a situation and then behave according to their understanding of that particular situation. The end goals or reaction of others would also determine the extent to which a person may be motivated to behave in a specific manner. Motivation may best be understood in terms of the biological, emotional, social, and cognitive forces that guide an individual’s behavior.
Q.2. Briefly discuss Need theory, Theory X and Theory Y, Expectancy theory, and Equity Theory.
The Need Theory analyses the need for achievement, power, and affiliation on people’s behavior in the managerial context. Every individual is motivated by varying factors. Individuals, who are motivated by achievement, are adamant to be the winners or outshine their peers in the completion of a task. These people function best under moderate risk situations when they are rewarded on their performance and not any other factor. People who have a need for affiliation want to create and maintain healthy social relationships. They do not question the status quo as a result of their fear of rejection. People who show a need for power want to be in control. They want to lead rather than be led. These people may be successful in achieving goals because they want to be recognized and want to improve their personal status.
Douglas McGregor developed Theory X and Theory Y to understand human motivation. Theory X suggests that people are lazy, and they dislike working in general. Therefore, it suggests management to closely supervise and lead its employees. Theory X managers often use coercion and threats to make their subordinates work. As a result of this management theory, the work environment may become retributive and lead to mistrust. On the other hand, Theory Y suggests that employees enjoy working and they will take an initiative at the workplace. Employees are seen as being responsible and self-motivated. Consequently, managers are able to develop a trusting relationship under this theory. Managers who believe in Theory Y empower their employees and let them make their decisions.
The Expectancy Theory of motivation suggests that an individual will behave in a particular manner because of the result of their behavior. It is the outcome that people foresee and then behave in a particular manner. It can be categorized as a cognitive process as people interpret the several motivational elements before showing a particular behavior.
Equity Theory deals with an individual’s perception of fair or unfair reward system. If people perceive the reward system as unjust, they would be de-motivated. The individual’s inputs should be directly related to the outputs. He should be rewarded according to the effort he puts in completing a task. Therefore, individuals may be uneasy if they are under or over rewarded. Underpaid employees develop hostile feelings towards the organization that results in an inefficient workplace.
Theory Z motivational theory is a combination of several motivational theories. It suggests that the management is concerned with the production alone. This concept is partly influenced by Theory X of McGregor. Theory Z also proposes that the management is concerned with its employee’s well-being. Furthermore, it would be unfair to view an organization as a separate entity. In order to truly understand an organization the external factors such as; social, political, and economic need to be understood.
Q.3.Discuss the two prescriptive models of employee motivation in criminal justice
The two prescriptive methods are quality circle programs and management by objectives. The aim of the quality circle programs is to enhance interaction amongst employees. Employees would meet at a specific time and place and discuss their problems and suggest possible solutions to each other. This promotes healthy relationships among people in the workplace. Since, employees would be responsible for solving their own problems it would result in an effective organization. People would be able to deduce solutions rather than waiting for management to suggest a possible solution.
In management by objectives, the management and individual employees are themselves responsible for setting goals. This allows for achievable and realistic goals to be set by the managers for their respective departments. As the employees would be involved in goal setting, they would be motivated towards achieving those goals. It is a combined effort of the management and workers; therefore, it may provide positive results. If the performance is judged on a continuous basis then the management may be able to achieve its goals effectively.
Q.4.Discuss an integrated model of motivation and its importance for criminal justice organizations
An integrated model of motivation incorporates several concepts for various motivational theories; hence, it may be beneficial for criminal justice administrators. As the management of criminal organizations have to deal with different types of individuals from varying backgrounds; therefore, they require a model that incorporates these differences. A single motivational theory has a very limited scope, and the scope of criminal justice administrators is very vast. The management can benefit from the concepts and ideas of different theories and apply these ideas to the required situation. As every situation is unique, the management cannot devise a one-fit-all strategy.