Escalation refers to the cycle of provocation or increased conflict levels in an organization or business venture. Escalation occurs when investment of resources such as money, effort or time is done to declining course of action whose outcome is unpredictable. It also occurs when a successful project abruptly becomes unattainable leaving many questions unanswered (Roberto, 2009).
Perpetual biases refer to bias that people make with the confirmation of decisions with exclusive data like a falling prey. Decision making process should be analyzed to detail to get quality decisions. Leaders in an organization should hence involve employees to give their opinions (Roberto, 2009).
This deals with the concept of framework and judgments made rely on arguments. Individual behavior is based on their beliefs and things they see and hear hence wording of the argument itself tell a lot about the decision made whether right or wrong (Roberto, 2009).
This explains ways in which decisions are made. People take time to reason before they act, but most people tend to make decisions that are similar to others so as to remain consistent which leads to repeated escalation of commitment. Therefore, organizations should set employees values that are similar to that of the organization to make the decision making process more effective (Roberto, 2009).
All these biases affect the leaders making decisions since they reflect lack of communication amongst their juniors. A good example is Bush and Kennedy where their decision making process led to the escalation of commitment which led to immediate failure (Faber and Faber, 2000). I tend to think decision making in every organization should be fast, effective and involve the respective employees so avoid conflicts or future failure.
Faber, C. F. and Faber, R. B. 2000. The American presidents ranked by performance. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.
Roberto, M. A. 2009. The art of critical decision making. Chantilly, VA: Teaching Co.