Mid Term Exam
Discuss the impact of the theories of Immanuel Kant, Charles Darwin and Jean-Paul Sartre on modernity.
Jean-Paul Sartre was flourished in Existentialism. He believed that a man acts in his free will in the society and time in which he lives. This philosophy inspired others to acknowledge their own free thinking and live the life they believed in. It broke the cookie cutter of what people were otherwise programmed to be and motivated others to break free in essence of their true self. It’s the true quest to fine a purpose in life. Because Jean Paul Sartre wrote and published many of his writings on Existentialism, his readers began to think in a different direction.
Immanuel Kant identifies politics as a leading pathway to human rights. Kant ties in perfectly with Jean-Paul Sartre because while people are thinking of freedom, they can begin to look at their own government who helps ensure their civil rights. If the government takes away the rights of certain people or actions, then those rights, even though existential, become restricted. Because of Kant’s identification of this, people can look and demand more from the government in their pursuit of free and civil rights.
Charles Darwin opened the door, publicly, to a whole new way of thinking on the creation of man. He spearheaded that science is the true creator of life and the universe. Without faith, his theories stand quite strong. Because Darwin’s philosophies and theories went mainstream, he gathered many others who may have had those same thoughts hiding inside their mind. It’s the break free and distribution of information that led a following and introduced people to a new way of thinking. Charles Darwin was a revolutionary theorist and changed the course of science forever. His theories are debated, used and referenced many times over when discussing the life of man and our place in the universe. Religion has never been the same as well due to Charles Darwin and is always up against the theories from his works.
2. Discuss the rebuilding of Paris under the direction of Emperor Napoleon III. How did the Emperor use photography and images to manipulate the masses and to control? In what ways does the work of Edouard Manet and Charles Baudelaire comment on Paris in terms of shifting and spaces of rebuilding the city?
The reign of the great Emperor was a definite movement in the re-structure of Paris. Coincidentally the emperor’s reign merged with the new and popular forms of photography. Napoleon took advantage of this perfect timing and appointed a city photographer that was assigned to capture the old and new structures of Paris. Paper photography was rapidly becoming popular and photos of the old and new Paris united the people of Paris in the new transformation of their city. Napoleon wanted to make an everlasting name for himself and one of his famous additions to the modern city of Paris was the extension of the Louvre.
Napoleon III took a few photos of himself using carpe di visiti, which was an easy and affordable version of photography (Santoso). Obviously, the public loves and craves new inventions that help keep them inspired and entertained. Images are really worth a thousand words, therefore, images of the streets of Paris could tell stories upon stories. With the feeding of photography from Napoleon III, he had an advantage of imagining himself as a modern ruler who truly looked out for the welfare of the art and architecture in Paris.
However, with all these changes comes cost and privilege. The rich and poor at it in unequals. Poet, Charles Baudelaire, depicts in his literature of the discrepancies between poverty and wealth. The rich are able to transform cities while the poor lay in the streets. Where is the money going? On the other hand, others were supportive of the infrastructure revolution. Edourad Manet was an artist who painted parts of the city of Paris. One of his most famous works was Music in the Tuileries Gardens in 1862, where he portrays people gathering in a new area transformed from Napoleon III.
3. Discuss urbanization in New York City from the late 19th to early 20th century. How did European immigration, and African American migration from the South, impact the social fabric of the city? What social group played a significant role in establishing a corporate identity in architecture at this time, and consumer identity in advertising. Cite specific examples.
New York City wouldn’t be New York City if it wasn’t for immigrants. Immigrants were coming to the new world for a new start. Because New York City was the hub of arriving immigrants, many of them stayed and innovated the city in ways other areas couldn’t imagine.
The most common architectural designs in New York City in the 19th and 20th Century were Greek Revival, English Renaissance and Gothic Renaissance. Though immigrants were coming to the new world they still felt it was necessary to bring traits with them from their old world, in this case, bringing architecture thought and design along with them.
Greek revival was most active in architecture during the 19th century with many architects going back to Roman, Greek and Romantic designs. In the 20th Century, architecture touched on a Spanish Revival and went on to Art Deco. The mix of cultures that lived in New York City goes on to prove all the different types of architecture that was popping up in the city. Because New York City was so diverse and significantly populated, there is not one or two set striation or architecture of the city. It’s an eclectic mix of many cultures and their architectures.
New York City was a mecca for the United States. Modern thinking flourished the city and talent was found in masses. It was the free thinking that put New York City at an advantage for cultural change. For instance, blacks in the South. In DuBois’s Criteria of Negro Art, many New Yorkers found black writers from the South to be talented and thoughtful and were more prone to look at all races as equals (DuBois, 1). These example helped move the civil rights movement to a non racial stance.
4. Why was Vienna ca 1900 regarded as a laboratory for the Apocalypse? What impact did the ideas of Georg Simmer and Sigmund Freud have on reshaping man and society? Cite specific examples in your discussion, and be sure to reference appropriate readings in framing your argument.
During the 20th Century, Vienna was home to several infamous citizens. Namely, Adolf Hitler, Sigmund Freud and Georg Simmer. This was a time when Vienna was putting out some prominent attributes for modern philosophy, architecture, music, art and literature. Hermann Brock described Vienna in the 1900s as a “gay apocalypse” (Broch, 81) . Man was becoming re-invented, modern and with this outlook came a new philosophy. Along with the new philosophy comes a new style in art, architecture, music, economics and all that makes up a community. All that was well in Vienna was soon a dance with disaster. Antisemitics, Jews and non-Jews, all came to a delta of chaos.
Georg Simmel asked the question, what is society? Questioning the purpose and reasons of scones and how humans relate and depend on it, presently and through history.
5. Discuss the psychological impact of the Relativity Theory on artists - i.e. forward progress, backward to the primitive.
The theory of relativity has a significant impact on artists because it scientifically breaks down that each person has a different reaction to all things, even though all those things remain the same. One paining of the Mona Lisa may fascinate an artists and yet another artist may not see it as one of the greatest works for art in history, but the Mona Lisa will always be the Mona Lisa.
Space is essential when dealing with art and architecture. The usage of space is prominent in the way we feel and how things look. Space can be manipulated in so many ways that can make or break the way a piece or building comes across. In architecture for that matter, the usage of space is critical to give a sense of freedom for movement. More space means more freedom. Cramming people into a tight space is a recipe for disaster but true art in architecture is the ability to use science in utilizing space. Space and human nature are defined by the laws of relativity. (Giovannini)
"Criteria of Negro Art :: W E B Du Bois . Org." Criteria of Negro Art :: W E B Du Bois . Org. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 June 2016.
Giovannini, Joseph, and Steve Hall/Hedrich Blessing. "Theory of Relativity." Architectural Digest. N.p., 31 May 2009. Web. 30 June 2016.
Santoso, Alex. "The Wonderful World of Early Photography." Neatorama. N.p., 29 Aug. 2006. Web. 29 June 2016.
Schlant, Ernestine, and Michael P. Steinberg. Hermann Broch. Chicago: U of Chicago, 1986. Print.