Physical Design Features in Crime Prevention- Kaplan (1978)
In his developed strategy, Kaplan (1978) has developed a way through which crime can not only be prevented, but also managed, considering the fact that the second half of the twentieth century was characterized by increased levels of criminal activities. This provided an opportunity for Kaplan to develop a strategy through which these criminal activities could be brought to book, and reduced. At the same time, the 37% increase in the number of criminal activities between 1950 and 1975 provided an opportunity for this strategy development, considering the fact that the number of criminal activities across the globe were on a constant and consistent increase. Burglary and robbery with violence are some of the criminal activities that Kaplan recorded to be on the highest increase rates. These are the criminal activities that his prevention targeted, and with his developed strategy, Kaplan sought to come up with a concrete way through which burglary and violent crimes could be contained, as well as managed. In his strategy, Kaplan used the victim approach to do so.
With his crime prevention plan, Kaplan sought to reduce the levels of victimization in enforcing the law and reducing crime. At the same time, he sought to develop a strategy through which the government or the authority would enforce the law, through crime reduction and detraction. To achieve this, Kaplan developed a five-fold strand, through which he would recommend the strategy’s implementation. These were personal safety, home security, fraud alert, travel security and safety and vehicle safety.
According to Kaplan, there are several risks that were associated with the five-fold physical design features. Firstly, it is necessary to note that it was a financially expensive strategy, especially when adopted by a company or organization. This is due to the fact that it has to cater for all the five mentioned areas. Secondly, it did not provide physical protection for communication, which was one of the areas through which criminals used to victimize and access corporations. The greatest risk, however, is the fact that considering the strategy is an incorporation of five different strategies; implementation of all the five strategies might fail to be successful, leading to a non-foolproof strategy implementation.
Considering the fact that Kaplan (1978) developed a five-strand strategy, corporations that have adopted it should look at other areas that need improvement, especially, considering the fact that there have been many changes and developments, especially in the Information and Computer technology (ICT) docket, which calls for review and development of the strategy. Some of these areas include mobile phone security, since this is one of the strategies that criminals have been using to terrorize unsuspecting victims.
The implementation of this strategy has led to the development and implementation of various physical design features that have enhanced security, both on organizational, as well as domestic/personal levels. At the same time, this strategy implementation, which took a physical design perspective, has played a major role in ensuring that the areas through which criminal activities mostly take place are identified and established (Kaplan 4). This has provided effective remedial measure that Kaplan’s plan has addressed, seeking to reduce the amount of criminal activities taking place in organizations, society and even at domestic levels. The strategy has been developed and improved even in the twenty first centuries, and is still applied to prevent crime.
Kaplan, David. Physical Design Features in Crime Prevention. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1978. Print.