One of the most debated and highly controversial topics continuously being discussed in all sectors of society is the issue on the legality of abortion. With the increasing number of cases pertaining to teenage pregnancy throughout the globe and the cases wherein impoverished families abort their children, the international community and the respective governments have raised the alarm in resolving the reduction of abortion. However, the arguments pertaining to allowing abortion and its counterarguments continue to either refute or approve abortion, making the debate continue even up to the present time. With the debates continuing to escalate in the modern age, it is likely that abortion would not be easily resolved due to the significance of these arguments. In this issue, abortion should not be permitted given the morals it violates and the fact that one is depriving the child the chance to live their life as how they see fit.
The arguments of pro-abortion legalization emphasizes three major arguments for people to agree on the benefits of abortion. The first argument pertains to the fact legalization of abortion would enable governments to adopt policies that would make sure that abortion is safe and only available to a few who could justify they are allowed to undergo the procedure. This would allow parents and the government to regulate abortion cases, especially since the Abortion Law can decree that it is required to get parental consent before the procedure is to be done. Legalization would allow parents to speak with their children regarding the danger and responsibilities they would have to face with the procedure and find other means to save the child and forego undergoing abortion. Additional requirements on getting abortion done would ensure that couples would not easily be able to attain the procedure without meeting with their families . The second argument supporters of accepting abortion is the fact that enforcing laws on abortion can prevent the increase of unsafe abortions. In the report of the World Health Organization, almost 82 countries have reported that unsafe abortions is one of the major reasons for high mortality in women ages 15-49. While there are cases wherein abortion is indeed successful, the woman’s body may not be able to handle the strain of the procedure and may develop abortion complications – physical, mental or emotional stress- that can be costly. Legalization of abortion would be able to prevent these complications and deaths from transpiring, as well as opening services to pregnant mothers and provide awareness regarding abortion . Finally, supporters of legalizing abortion also argue that a person is allowed to do what he/she wishes to his body and to their life. One of the most notable cases which used this argument is the Roe v Wade 1973 case wherein the US Supreme Court decreed that a woman has the right to abort their child under the Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution .
On the other hand, the arguments of opponents countered that abortion should not be legalized as it challenges morality and can cause severe impacts to the families undergoing such procedures. The major argument passed by the pro-life groups is the issue on the right to life as abortion technically is seen as a murder against an innocent human soul. The Catholic Church, one of the staunchest supporters of the anti-abortion campaign, mirrors Islam in stating that a fetus possesses a soul sometime after its development, Islam stating that a soul is in the fetus on its 120th day while Christianity teaches that ensoulment happens after 16 weeks. Christianity also sees abortion as a grave and mortal sin as it covers two major commandments: killing a fellow man and stealing a child’s right to life. If abortion is in anyway legalized, the religious groups argue that it would also emphasized that disabled and helpless people like fetuses are insignificant and do not have a sliver of humanity in them that would count them as human beings . In addition to the argument raised by religion over the right to live of fetuses, killing these fetuses is morally wrong as it is intentional murder. These fetuses also would feel pain, especially upon their 22nd week of development, thereby affecting their soul and development. Once the act is committed, the child, which is filled with endless possibilities of development would not be brought to the world. This depraved child would not see its bright future and contribute to the society .
The second argument opponents to legalization of abortion state that legalization would only push teenagers and pregnant women to undergo clandestine abortion practices due to the restrictions and also continue engaging into sex. Since there is a possibility that teenage couples and pregnant women would require parental/partner consent and pass the tests required to be cleared for abortion, many women would be forced to look for illegal means to undergo the procedure. If complications occur, it is only then would these young couples reveal their status and why they went to abortion clinics without proper checkup and documentation . In addition, since abortion is now legalized and available to the public, it would cause an influx of unprotected sex cases in teenage couples .
Finally, pro-life and anti-abortion supporters see that abortion, may it be legalized or just applied, would be fatal to the body and to the mind, especially given the methods used to do abortion. Several complications may occur, even if abortion is done to save a mother’s life from continuous pregnancy and other health complications. Experts have stated that regular or pre-meditated abortion would affect the well-being and life of the mother, especially if the mother is to bear another child. There are two major impacts of abortion to a person: medical and psychological. In the medical aspect, abortion would affect the woman’s body considering that abortion is done by intruding into the womb forcefully and remove the fetus. The most common procedure used for abortion is dilating the woman’s cervix and use a curette (a scalpel) that would scrape the contents of the uterus and the womb. The risks involving this procedure is the laceration of the uterine wall due to the curette, hemorrhage and pelvic/uterine infection. Aside from dilatation, uterine aspiration is also used for abortion, which would require a suction machine called aspirator that would suck the contents of the womb. However, this method presents additional risks as it would cause uterine perforation that may impact the entire reproductive organ of the patient and render them incapable of giving birth. Hysterectomy is also a known method for abortion which consists of a mini-caesarian procedure to remove the contents of the womb. In this procedure, a patient would only be able to bear a child through the C-section and be incapable of bearing their children normally. Finally, abortion can also be done through saline abortion, using saline or prostaglandin to kill the fetus. However, like the other methods, saline abortion can be deadly considering the content of saline or prostaglandin may cause an infection that can cause ectopic pregnancy.
Finally, in the psychological impact of abortion, patients may exhibit signs of distraught and stress before and after undergoing abortion. Experts show findings that patients who undergo abortion show incapacities of returning into a normal life and returning back to society. Many mothers developed Post-Abortion Depression and Anxiety especially after the procedure. Almost 10% of mothers develop lingering depression, which would often find them distraught upon recalling the experience. Some studies also state that women who develop these psychological incapacities tend to showcase guilt and post-traumatic stress disorder as they would realize the gravity and the danger of the act committed . With some abortion patients doing the act due to unwanted pregnancy, guilt would linger and may be carried out into their next pregnancy. There is also the chance wherein patients with mental difficulties who underwent abortion displayed additional psychological incapacities after the procedure . Researchers also confirm that if the patient would reconsider abortion methods for the second time, they would experience signs of delaying their decision as they would feel guilt and stress .
The arguments presented by both the supporters of legalizing abortion and opposing abortion have some acceptable arguments that would present a dilemma in resolving the crisis. On the one hand, legal abortion can indeed drop down the rate of unsafe abortions and regulate such procedure to a few especially if the government pushes for tight enforcement and stringent policies to support this campaign. On the other hand, however, the primary concept that abortion can be seen as a murder of a child’s life, never mind if it is a fetus or a developed baby, is sacrilegious and would not be seen positively by society and an individual’s morals. With legalization applying stringent requirements, it would just push children towards unsafe and clandestine abortion clinics that may cause fatal damage to the body. Finally, legalizing abortion would just push pregnant women to face physical, mental, and emotional trauma especially after the abortion. In a personal degree, abortion may indeed have its benefits and disadvantages, however, it is crucial to understand that no matter what benefit it may have, abortion can indeed be dangerous not just for the child and parent, but also for the future of the family that undergo such procedure.
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