The processes of globalization of the economy, consisting of the alignment of technological conditions of production, bringing together the wage level, to improve the accessibility of information technology, updated the search for new ways to compete in the market. The availability of comparable financial and material resources, training, using identical social programs deprives the organization of competitive advantage, which could be observed in the years of resource scarcity.
Marketing technologies have reached a level at which the objective of increasing the quality of the goods is not a priority. With the power of the industrial centers of the world (China, Korea) and the unification of the world economic space there was a glut of markets for goods and services. Leading manufacturers, devoid of anti-monopoly policy, the possibility of passive contemplation of the situation, the rank and file organization, defining the competitive sector of its activity as a reference, faced with the decision of a complex problem: where to find additional development potential, which will serve as an innovative resource management that can not only increase the efficiency of operation and management, but also affect the choice of the consumer, thereby increasing the competitiveness of the organization.
Currently, a significant influence on the development of corporate culture by processes of globalization. Globalization should be seen as a multidimensional and internally contradictory phenomenon of the modern era with a lot of forward and backward linkages, involving national and multinational businesses, national governments and their agencies, regional multinational associations, formal and informal international organization whose relations are characterized by a combination of intense competition with growing elements of interaction and cooperation. D. Marshall notes that multinationals were the main organizers of economic activity in an integrating world economy.
Key Research Findings and Developments
Development of the global economy contributed to a number of factors. The most important of them, according to R. Stryker, KK Colin, are:
1) The increasing integration of financial markets;
2) Telecommunications revolution that created the conditions for corporations permanent contacts with all countries of the world and enter into transactions with partners located anywhere in the world;
3) Expansion of the activities of transnational corporations;
4) Failure of multinational corporations from the Fordist system of work organization and the transition to a flexible system of labor use, making it possible to both transnational and national corporations to adapt to the constant changes in the world economy in order to keep their positions and entering new markets;
5) Increased involvement of third world countries in world trade, as well as in the global investment process and the international division of labor;
6) Dramatically intensified the relationship between the two countries has become so significant factor in the economic life, which is now no country can not remain aloof from the world economy and progress in the international competition are the conditions for successful corporations in the national market.
Therefore, the basis for the process of globalization is the information revolution and the development of the telecommunication system, the internationalization of industrial relations in the high-tech industry based on foreign direct investment, the formation of global-scale and continuous operation mode for markets, primarily financial. Information technology paradigm embraced all spheres and sectors of the industrial economy, has changed its scale, dynamics and internal content.
Information technology has changed not the kinds of activities and their ability to use technology as a direct productive force that distinguishes humans from other biological creatures, ie ability to process and understand the symbols, generating new knowledge. Such changes in the structure of the modern economy are considered today as a global structural shift that marked the transition from the material to the knowledge-based economy, an economy based on knowledge.
Scientific knowledge and specialized skills of their unique vehicles are the main source and a key factor in the development of material and non-material production, sustainable economic development. As the VI Kashirin, VL Foreigners, in modern science is maturing understanding that society is facing a new variation that can not be reduced to the transformation of the old order, but a formation of a new social order.
The depth of the radical changes associated with the replacement of labor knowledge, is that at a time when the practical knowledge involved in the processing of resources, it is knowledge, not labor are beginning to act as a source of value. The labor theory of value is replaced by the theory of the value created by knowledge. The founder of the theory T. Sakayya emphasizes that we are entering a new stage of civilization in which the driving force is the value created by knowledge. As a result, the economy becomes a system that functions on the basis of knowledge sharing and mutual evaluation.
The substitution of labor knowledge suggests that the possible replacement of a new type of work activity has considerable elements of creativity, raise the question of the historical perspective of the "classical" work. The founders of Marxism held that the "classic" work with the development of society will give way to a higher type of activity, and with access rights beyond the scope of the actual production in the future society, there will be destruction and removal work.
It should be noted, and the fact that globalization is "softisation" of the economy, which means the domination in the production process of information flow on the direct interaction with nature through processing nature of matter and bringing it to the consumer. Today, in contrast to the industrial age in developed countries a direct impact on the material object of labor carries a much smaller number of workers. The main part of human activity is "game between persons", the product of which is represented knowledge and information. Knowledge and creativity of workers become the main factor in the efficiency of the economic system, without which the technical and economic progress of the last becomes almost unattainable goal, regardless of the amount of funds invested in production equipment and technology. To get involved in productive consumption scientific, economic, technological, organizational and management information, largely preceding the manufacturing process, determining its compliance with the changing conditions of production, becoming a driving force for innovation, " personalized " resource, part of the know- how of the corporation.
Strong influence on the corporate culture of modern society has an active implementation of innovative activity leading corporations, both nationally and globally. L. Pauley, S. Reich noted that the most intensive investment in research and development is carried out multinational corporations (MNCs), USA. Their share in the total expenditure on research and development (R & D) is an average for the year of about 15%. From 1982 until the mid 90's the total cost of U.S. corporations in R & D increased by 42%. Most of the R & D expenditures performed by corporations in order to increase the effectiveness of marketing their products and gather information in the field of new technologies.
Science-Practitioner Gaps and Areas of Agreement/Alignment
Replacing the labor marked shows the transition of public knowledge production from the material to the innovation. The basis is the use of innovative production of new knowledge or a new use of the knowledge embodied in technology, know- how, new combinations of factors of production, the structure of the organization and management, and which give intellectual rent and various advantages over competitors.
This definition implies that the innovative production does not "look", not a " new area of production," and the nature of industrial activity in which a central role in the production process of shifting from a mechanical use of the information to the intellectual and creative. The transition from the purely material to the innovative production means that, along with the real, tangible form of being social production there is " intangible " form, which we propose to call the anthropocentric.
The essence of the anthropocentric forms of production is to generate knowledge. The generation of knowledge is "emanation", the creation of knowledge by means of information processing based on a well-known knowledge. The source of the generation of new knowledge supports human intellectual activity. Intellectual activity is a knowledge-based, conscious, morally oriented ability to collect, store and process all the growing flows of information.
Innovation itself is dependent on two conditions, both intellectual potential and its ability to specification. In other words, new knowledge has to be discovered, generate, and then applied to specific problems in a specific organizational and production context.
Integrated interpretation of the structure of production of innovative means, first, that, along with "tangible" real movement of factors of production, it is another thing, "intangible" the movement of information and knowledge, and secondly, that the intellectual activity of the person gets in the production process functionality and performs a kind of "intangible means of labor" that generate knowledge.
As noted by R. Keeley and X. Pirer effective way to quickly implement innovations is the use of a more flexible workforce capable of performing a wide range of tasks and allow the constant changes in the production process. For example, the company "Siemens" any particular innovation involves constant invention and implementation of new profiles of employees, particularly in the field of communications and information technology. Market challenges require professional employees more and more interdisciplinary, disappears when the visible line between technicians and managers, and when the modern professionalism necessarily involves a characteristic such as mobility in the various fields of activity.
New organizational forms adapted to the global economy and a flexible manufacturing system, is a system born in the Japanese company "Toyota" and opposes the U.S.’s “Fordism”:
1) Supply System "kanban" ("just in time"), in which the stocks are eliminated or substantially reduced by delivery of intermediate goods and materials from suppliers to manufacturing site at the appointed time and with the required characteristics;
2) "Total quality control" products in the production process, aimed at the reduction of defects to zero;
3) The interest of the workers in the production process through the use of teamwork;
4) Decentralization initiatives;
5) Greater autonomy of decisions taken directly to the shop floor;
6) Remuneration for the results of teamwork.
The central place in the global economy takes an individual, as a free man with a high motivation to be creative. In today's world, corporations are not only material production as community living organism that needs nurturing, protection, motivation, only then he will survive from generation to generation for the benefit of others. As a result, in today's economy and society unprecedented importance acquire intangible resources as the key to economic and social progress in the information age is to enhance the intellectual and human capacity at all levels of social life, and, above all at the level of individual corporations that require a highly professional approach to human resource management.
Potential for Future Research that is Beneficial to Both the Research Community and Applied Field Settings
Great importance in the context of globalization and represents the effective management of the process of internationalization of the globalized corporations, while maintaining its domestic corporation identity. We are talking about the survival of the corporation as a unified body of business in different cultures, which sold its business activity. This international challenge of the globalized business environment in the modern corporation was passed in the sense that the success of career employees were directly related to their personal experience of entering a foreign culture.
Consequently, in the context of globalization in the way of corporate culture of multinational corporations are the barriers associated with the socio-cultural diversity and the diversity of the staff, employees with different cultural skills as an educational, professional, and national, religious, gender, age, etc. The problem is that how to combine Multicultural people optimize interpersonal relationships in the corporation, to remove social conflicts, workers adapt to the corporate identity. The solution of this problem and its related issues of understanding and harmony, cooperation and social partnership is a necessary element of PR- activity of the corporation.
The objectives of PR- activities carried out within the corporate culture are:
1) Identify the objective state of corporate culture;
2) Determination of recipients of cultural influence and acceptance of cultural development workers as a given;
3) Conduct of cultural counseling managers at all levels of technical staff, clerks;
4) Implementation of the Programme of Action through the actions and campaigns aimed at the development and maintenance of corporate relations on the basis of the unity of the rules and priorities of behavior, moral principles and values of interpersonal and business relationships, both vertically and horizontally, solidarity conflict resolution, the formation of corporate identity.
It should be noted that a significant positive impact on the change of corporate culture at the present stage of development of the world civilization by social and environmental consequences of globalization.
First of all, it should be noted that the growth of world trade and the international division of labor has led to increased differences between rich and poor. As noted by A. Lafontaine and K. Mueller, the income gap between the poorest 20% and 20 % of the richest people in the world compared to 1966 more than doubled. The number of poor since the 70s, has grown to several hundred million people. The developing countries are trying to neutralize the negative effects of free trade: they attract foreign investment due to the favorable conditions of the location of production, low wages and low social and environmental standards. As a result, the population has increased rejection and employees of social inequality generated by the orientation of individual corporations to maximize profits, increased dissatisfaction environmental citizens ' indifference ' of many multinational corporations.
Business associations of a number of Western European countries are showing a greater tendency to conclude tripartite agreements (covenants), which in addition to the regulation of relations in the labor market and includes issues of "formal and informal mechanisms of the welfare state."
Consequently, there was a rejection of the principle that any business is created for profit and there under a "business-to- business and have a business." This is due to the fact that modern business is not implemented in a vacuum, but in a particular environment and can be successful only in a stable and predictable environment. Creating such an environment is possible with close and productive interaction between business and the state and society.
The initial conflict with the corporate community and the state has led to the revitalization of the social component of the corporate culture. The practical advantages of a socially responsible corporate culture of the company are:
First, strengthen the reputation and image of the company. Fair and socially responsible business practices results in strengthening the reputation and image of the company in the eyes of the general public and the business community. Socially responsible behavior is manifested in the reduction of costs of interaction with the authorities, as well as helping to attract and retain staff of the company;
Secondly, improving the efficiency of doing business. Socially responsible business is a direct reflection of the increase in the efficiency of the company. Companies adhering to socially responsible business practices receive benefits such as increased employee productivity, reduced operating costs, and increase sales and increase customer loyalty;
Third, increase the investment attractiveness of the company. Adherence to the principles of ethical, socially and environmentally responsible business practices leads to an increase of investment attractiveness of the company, which in turn manifests itself in improving the financial performance of its operations and opens up greater access to capital.
Thus, globalization, intense competition, the need to find effective and innovation define new targets and parameters for the functioning of the corporate culture:
First, the policy is to support and encourage creativity, innovation employees. In the dynamic, responsive to the "challenges" outside corporations such an approach, this attitude toward work becomes an essential requirement for all categories of employees, to all levels of management. Creating an atmosphere of confidence in employees that their constructive initiatives seriously considered and committed leadership, innovation increases production and develops the intellectual capital of the Corporation;
Second, awareness of employees about the management plans, with a view to a clear understanding of their ways of improving its operations and concentrating its efforts on new challenges and objectives of the corporation;
Thirdly, the transnational nature of the economic activities of corporations requires consideration of national, social and cultural features of the employees in the process of forming a unified team spirit;
Fourth, the establishment of common cultural environment in which employees will determine how their capacity can be aligned with the goals of the corporation and to find new forms of cooperation.
Barney, J. B. (1986). "Organizational Culture: Can It Be a Source of Sustained Competitive Advantage?". Academy of Management Review, 11(3), pp. 656–665.
Black, Richard J. (2003) Organizational Culture: Creating the Influence Needed for Strategic Success, London UK, ISBN 1-58112-211-X
Bligh, Michelle C. (2006) "Surviving Post-merger ‘Culture Clash’: Can Cultural Leadership Lessen the Casualties?" Leadership, vol. 2: pp. 395 - 426.
Hartnell, C. A., Ou, A. Y., & Kinicki, A. (2011, January 17). "Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Competing Values Framework's Theoretical Suppositions." Journal of Applied Psychology (online publication). doi:10.1037/a0021987
Jex, Steven M. Jex & Britt, Thomas W. (2008) Organizational Psychology, A Scientist-Practitioner Approach, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-470-10976-2.
Markus, Hazel. (1977) "Self-schemata and processing information about the self." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 35(2): pp. 63–78.
Mills, Albert J. (1988) "Organization, Gender and Culture" (abstract), Organization Studies, 9(3), pp. 351–369
O'Donovan, Gabrielle (2006). The Corporate Culture Handbook: How to Plan, Implement and Measure a Successful Culture Change Programme, The Liffey Press, ISBN 1-904148-97-2
Papa, Michael J., et al. (2008). Organizational Communication Perspectives and Trends (4th Ed.). Sage Publications.
Phegan, B. (1996–2000) Developing Your Company Culture, A Handbook for Leaders and Managers, Context Press, ISBN 0-9642205-0-4
Sopow, E. (2007). Corporate personality disorder. Lincoln NB: iUniverse.