Lab Report One
Write an abstract for the article “Effect of fat replacement on sensory attributes of chocolate chip cookies”. The abstract should be 250 words or less. The abstract should state the objective of the experiment, briefly describe the “methodology” used, state the main results and the conclusions of the experiment. (40 points)
The objective of the experiment was to determine the palatability and overall acceptability of chocolate chips cookies made using fat replacement products and to compare their sensory attributes with those of cookies made with traditional fat. Gerber prune paste, Wonderslim brand fat and egg replacement were used as fat replacements in chocolate chip cookies. As a control fat replacement, Crisco butter-flavor shortening was used. Each treatment was done using three replicates. The hedonic scale was used to rate each cookie by 93 panelists and a statistical analysis was performed. In general, there was a good link between replications for all treatment in each sensory attribute evaluated. Data were combined for the three replications to simplify the evaluation. Group B scored the worst for all of the sensory attributes having the worst acceptability. Group C had the best acceptability and groups A and D exhibited similar scores. Chocolate chip cookies made with traditional fat were less expensive and generally preferred by people. In the acceptability category, cookies made with Wonderslim fat replacement were less desirable that those made with a traditional fat. In conclusion, palatability and acceptability of chocolate chips cookies made using Gerber prune paste, Wonderslim brand fat and egg as fat replacement products were lower than that from cookies made with traditional fat. Other research is necessary in order to evaluate other fat replacement strategies in chocolate chips cookies so as to obtain a similar palatability and acceptability with regards to the traditional one. All of this is done in order to reduce fat consumption in the population.
Summarize two key statements that relate this experiment to the American diet? (20 points)
Two key statements that relate this experiment to the American diet are:
The experiment’s results showed that people preferred chocolate chip cookies that were made using traditional fat, while those made with Wonderslim as fat replacement were significantly less desirable. This is a problem with regards to the American diet because although Dietitians recommended that one should reduce the fat, people do not have an alternative with respect to chocolate chip cookies.
If people include cookies made with the fat replacements considered in this study, consumers can reduce fat consumption by nearly 70%.
This information is important since calories from snacks play an important role in the obesity of American children (Sampey et al., 2011), a problem that has been gaining almost epidemic status. Also, Park et al, 2004 reported a higher consumed of cookies on Korean Americans than Koreans, and Sherwood, et al, 2003 in African American girls.
How does this experiment contribute to knowledge about effects of fat replacement on sensory attributes of cookies? Which statement indicates a gap in current knowledge? (40 points)
This experiment contributed to knowledge about effects of fat replacement on sensory attributes of cookies by studying the acceptability of three different fat replacements on the preparation of chocolate chips cookies: Gerber prune paste, Wonderslim brand fat and egg. In the experiment, untrained panelists were randomly selected and studies of appearance, color of surface, texture, tenderness, flavor and overall acceptability were tested. Results showed the best acceptability of chocolate chip cookies without fat replacement or having the regular fat, which was considered to be the control group.
A statement that indicates a gap in current knowledge is related to the fact that some common fat replacement products do not produce sensory and palatability qualities similar to the traditional true fats. Furthermore, there is a little known about which product could be used as a fat replacement while having good acceptance with regards to the final product, which in this experiment was chocolate chip cookies.
Write the null hypothesis of this experiment. (10 points)
The null hypothesis of this experiment could be:
H0: Fat replacement components do not affect the palatability and overall acceptability of chocolate chip cookies.
What is the formula or recipe for “prune paste” chocolate chip cookies? Write the recipe in metric amounts and in block format. (40 points)
The prune paste chocolate chip cookie formula is composed if 85 g of Prune paste, 189 g of brown light pack sugar, 60 mL of large egg, 30 mL of skim milk, 15 mL of vanilla, 199 g of all purposed unsifted flour, 4 g of salt, 3 g of baking soda, and 227 g of semisweet chocolate chips. For the preparation, it is necessary to preheat the oven to 375 ºF. Then, one combines the prune paste, brown sugar, milk and vanilla in a large bowl. After, one should cream them with wooden spoon with one hundred strokes. One should then mix in the egg, with 25 strokes. In a separate bowl, one has to combine the flour, salt and baking soda. After this, one should mix into creamed mixture, around 100 strokes. Then, stir in chocolate chips. Drop dough with a tablespoon 5 cm apart on an ungreased aluminum cookie sheet and bake for 8 min at 375 ºF, which should give lightly browned, chewy cookies. Cool them on a cookie sheet for one minute. Store in a lightly sealed containers.
What is the formula or recipe for the “control” chocolate chip cookies? Write the recipe in metric amounts and in block format. (40 points)
The “control” chocolate chip cookie formula is composed by 170 g of Butter-fllavor shortening (Crisco), 189 g of brown light pack sugar, 60 mL of large egg, 30 mL of skim milk, 15 mL of vanilla, 199 g of all purposed-unsifted flour, 4 g of salt, 3 g of baking soda, 227 g of semisweet chocolate chips. For the preparation, preheat the oven to 375 ºF, combine the prune paste, brown sugar, milk and vanilla in a large bowl. Cream them with wooden spoon, in the order of one hundred strokes. Mix in egg (25 strokes). In a separate bowl combine flour, salt and baking soda. Mix into creamed mixture (100 strokes), Stir in chocolate chips. Drop dough with a tablespoon 5 cm apart on an ungreased aluminum cookie sheet and bake for 8 min at 375 ºF for lightly browned, chewy cookies. Cool them on a cookie sheet for one minute. Store in a lightly sealed containers.
Although the author did not use a mechanical mixer in the experiment, there was mention of how many strokes should be done when the mixture was being prepared. For example, when it is time for the shortening or the substitute to be combined with the other ingredients, the author writes that it is necessary to use a wooden spoon and mix with one hundred strokes. It should do not affect the results in future experiments since a detail is explained in the preparation of the cookies. Also, the information about the ingredients is very specific.
Draw the sensory score card used to evaluate the cookies in this study. (20 points)
The sensory score card used in this experiment is based on the hedonic scale (Lim, 2011) to rate each cookie for characteristics as appearance, color of surface, texture, tenderness and flavor.
A score card used to evaluate the cookies was as:
1: like extremely, 2: like very much, 3: like moderately, 4: like slightly, 5: neither like nor dislike, 6: dislike slightly, 7: dislike moderately, 8: dislike very much, 9: dislike extremely.
Revise the citation for the following articles into the acceptable format used in the Journal of Food Science (10 points).
McBride J. Two thumbs up for Oatrim: human study shows a double benefit for this new fat substitute. Agricultural Rese. 1993; 41; 4-7.
McBride J. 1993. Two thumbs up for Oatrim: human study shows a double benefit for this new fat substitute. Agricultural Rese 41: 4-7.
Food and nutrition Board. Diet and Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1989.
Food and Nutrition Board. 1989. Diet and health. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.
Why does this table not meet the format standard for the journal of Food Science? List the reasons.(30 points)
The table does not meet the format standard for the journal of Food Science because:
The information at the top, although short, is not descriptive.
There are not enough significant figures for the numerical data presented.
Tables should not have all the vertical and horizontal lines.
Use the version of Table 2 in the article to make a statement about how the panelists rated cookies made with Oatrim compared to the control. (20 points)
Panelists rated cookies made with Oatrim as having a worse acceptability than the control, which is reflected in the values on Table 2. Here, one can see that the control has an acceptability value of 2.11, while cookies made with Oatrim have a value of 4.52. Also, for all other sensory attributes, control cookies have lower values than those made with Oatrim as a fat substitute. This is evidenced by the hedonic value being lower while value the acceptability is higher.
Use the version of Table 2 in the article to make a statement about how the panelists rated cookies made with prune paste compared to the control. (20 points)
When cookies made with prune paste is compared to the control, panelists reflected more acceptability for the control (2.11) than those made with prune paste (3.27). These results are shown on Table 2. Also, as in the case of cookies made with Oatrim, all other sensory attributes showed lower values for control cookies than for cookies made with prune paste.
Identify a more recent article that has cited this paper (10 points).
More recent articles that have cited this paper are:
Popov-Raljić J.V., Mastilović J.S., Laličić-Petronijević J.G., Kevrešan Ž.S., Demin M.A.. 2013. Sensory and color properties of dietary cookies with different fiber sources during 180 days of storage. Hem. ind. 67 (1): 123–134.
Chauhan J.M., Lim S.Y., Powers J.R., Ross C.F., Clark S. Short communication: low-fat ice cream flavor not modified by high hydrostatic pressure treatment of whey protein concentrate. J.Daity Sci, 93:1452-1458. doi: 10.3168/jds.2009-2688.
Lim, Juyun. “Hedonic scaling: A review of methods and theory”. Food Quality and Preference
22 (2011): 733-747. Print.
Park S.Y., Paik, H.Y., Skinner, J.D., Spindler, A.A., Park, H.R. “Nutrient intake of Korean-
American, Korean, And American Adolescents.” Journal American Diet Association 104 (2004): 242-245. Print.
Sampey, B.P., V anhoose, A.M., Winfieldo, H.M., Freemerman, A.J., Muehlbauer, M.J., Fueger,
P.T., Newgard, C.B., Makowski, I. “Cafeteria diet is a robust model of human metabolic
syndrome with liver and adipose inflammation: comparison to high-fat diet.” Obesity 19 (2011): 1109-1117. Print.
Sherwood, N.E., Story, M., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Adkins, S., Davis, M. “Development and
implementation of visual card-sorting technique for assessing food and activity preferences and patterns in African Americans Girls. Journal of American Diet Association 103 (2003): 1473-1479. Print.