Communication is important in improving quality especially in all aspects of operations of the company. Communication is key in most of the improvement programs in the company and by the members or stakeholders of a particular company observing the use of effective communication skills. They can develop the company and thus produce quality services and goods. Communication through the use of visual management pictures is important in a company as it presents the goals and approach that the company uses to solve some of the problems that it faces. By presenting the goals of the company, people are motivated, and most of them commit to change and promise to produce better results in order to develop the company. Wrong communication acts as a set back to the companies as they tend to discourage people by frustrating them, thus making them resist change. Most of the improvement of quality programs are managed by technical persons found within the technical environment. Most individuals undervalue, underestimate and perceive communication as difficult not realizing that it is one of the key tools of improving quality within the company. Effective communication is important as it makes us understand other people in a better way thus enabling us to build trust and resolve our differences. Effective communication also allows us to create suitable environments in which creative ideas from different individuals within an organizational set up can articulate their issues comfortably without disturbance from other people. Listening is one of the aspects of effective communication, and this is important as it streamlines the company thus leading to the production of quality services and goods. Successful listening does not only make an individual understand what they are being told but also makes them understand the speakers' feeling towards the subject of discussion. Effective communication is important in a company as it leads to production of quality services and goods. Responsibility is important in order for a company to produce quality goods and services. A responsible person can work without supervision as he or she is only accountable to themselves. Responsible individuals can be trusted and even depended upon to do their things in the manner in which they desire provided they are within the scopes of the company. Every employee should be aware of responsibility as a central guiding principle for the daily operations of the company. Since the responsibility is the guiding principle, companies should accept their responsibility towards the customers, employees, and the environment. Responsibility from the top to lowest management level in the company is important as that act as one of the ways of ensuring quality is enhanced. Quality is of significance in order to achieve some of the objectives of the company. High quality should not be an added value to the company but should act as a basic requirement. Quality of the products produced by a company does not only relate to the end products but also relates to the way in which employees plays their role and the follow up process they conduct to produce quality goods and services. All the employees in the company starting from the manager's office to the lowest rank are responsible for producing quality work within their areas of operation. Authority refers to an individual or organization having control in a particular administrative sphere. For instance, in the company, those in authority greatly contributes to the production of quality services and goods in that company. Because achieving quality does not occur as an accident, those in authority should ensure that they manage the production process in a better way in order to achieve quality standards. Quality management is important as it focus in controlling activities in order to ensure that the services and the products meet their specifications. Those in authority such as the quality control managers ensures that faulty products do not reach the customers. The general manager in a company is responsible for quality production in the company depending on the way in which they make use of their managerial skills. Staff management by the manager is important in ensuring quality production in the company. One of the most important aims of a manager is to ensure that all the staff understand what they do and how they should respond to various situations in order to make the company successful. In the process of ensuring staff management, the manager should also motivate the employees in order to boost the their morale while working in the company. Some of the aspects of the job in which the manager can focus on is reasonable wage,employment security and good working relations with other members of the staff. Since the employees are also in authority, they should ensure the production of quality goods or services in the company. They can do so by striving to be the best as that will motivate them to aim at producing quality in the company. Commitment refers to the psychological state that makes an individual bind to a particular organization. Commitment ensures that an individual sticks to an organization,whether the conditions of the job are not satisfying or satisfying. Most of the companies often assume that employee retention is commitment, and they never realize that it is wrong to state that an employee who stays in a the company for a long time is committed. Affective commitment is important as such employees who are committed to a company in that way strive to produce the best since they want to be identified with the organization. Such employees stay in a particular company or organization because it is their desire and want. Commitment amongst the employees is important as it acts as an important instrument in improving the way in which an organization functions. Employee engagement leads to the production of quality services and goods based on values and the goals of the organization. Making employees committed to their organization goals is important as it ensures that the employees willingly do what is required of them. By engaging the employees, the manager creates for them conditions in which they are to offer their full potential and capability. An engaged employee is one who experience organizational commitment, feelings of empowerment and job satisfaction. Normative commitment in which individuals stay within a particular organization because they feel they should also lead to quality production in the company. Such employees benefit from the company and feel the need to reciprocate. The management of a particular company, therefore, has the task of motivating the employees with fringe benefits in order to boost their morale. Motivation is key in achieving quality within a particular organization. It entails the external and internal factors that enhance the energy and desire in an individual to be continually committed to continuing making effort in order to achieve a certain goal. Motivation of an individual arises from both the unconscious and the conscious factors such as reward, intensity of the need, and expectation of an individual. Motivation and the performance of an employee are closely connected because every employee must have some form of motivation in order for them to work. Most of the big firms train their management to motivate those in authority because they know the importance when it comes to quality production. Most employees are motivated by fringe benefits and money since people mostly work in order to get the funds that cover their daily activities. Financial rewards make the employees work harder in order to achieve the goals and the expectations of the company. Since most companies strive to produce quality, they motivate their employees through promotions. Motivation is important in an organization or company as it leads to increased productivity thus making the organization achieve higher levels of output. Motivated employees tend to retain innovation and produce quality work with much efficiency. Motivation does not only lead to quality production but also maintains and regulates the behavior of the employees. Motivating employees is, therefore, an important aspect if the company strives at producing quality products. Question 2 The management in the Chicago instance was the city government since they responsible for what happens in the city. The problem of the tunnel that was discovered by the Cable TV workers was reported to them and how they could have handled the situation could have influenced the outcome. Since the city management had no streamlined departments that could work together in harmony with one another, it was difficult to manage the disaster.The involvement of the city government in the tragedy was poor because they could have prevented it from happening suppose they would have indulged fully in the exercise. Because any system that values efficiency over effectiveness also devalues ethical behavior, the city government failed terribly in providing services to the people. The cable TV tried to behave ethically by reporting the matter to the necessary authority who were then relaxed and never wanted act. The employees were poorly motivated, and this is shown even, by the way, in which the workers from the cable TV crew were treated. They got information about the danger the tunnel would pose to the society only for the city officials to sit back and wait. It probably could have frustrated them since after getting the important information; the city officials were slow to act and even never appreciated them. The workers were poorly motivated, and this is shown by how they responded to the problem. They were reluctant in what they were doing probably due to no or poor motivation. The responsibility was bestowed on the city government officials including the engineers. After getting information from cable TV that there was a crack in the tunnel underneath, the city government would have acted swiftly in order to contain the issue. The engineers also never acted in urgency since they would have stopped the problem had they acted in urgency. The authority to act was solely on the engineers and the officials involved in making of the crack in the tunnel. Since a faulty system can make employees powerless to make positive contributions, the government officials had the highest authority to solve the issue since they frustrated some of the workers due to bureaucracy. The employees were not probably appropriately educated and trained based on the way in which they acted upon the matter when they received the information. Such information needed an immediate action while they took the time to act and later resulted into more losses. Communication breakdown occurred since each of the departments in the organization stood alone, and therefore the support needed to rally the employees to do the right thing was not present. Fragmentation of the structures that exists in an organization such as the government makes it difficult to take action, and that could have probably led to a communication breakdown.