IMPORTANT: The questions listed below are an abbreviated version of those found in the full exercise instructions posted on Blackboard. To receive full marks, follow the full exercise instructions for each question.
Warning! The median and mode values are not described. You should go in Descriptive Statistics menu and mark these indicators to be shown in output. Otherwise your answer is not full!
The hypothesis is that there is a relationship between population centers’ indicator and main sources of stress
[We can see, that the main sources of stress is caused by work (from 28.6% to 38.1%). This is natural, especially for the large urban locations (and we can see, that the crosstable approves this claim). But, for example, financial concerns are less significant for urban citizens, as they earn more.
[Since p-value is 0.031, we can reject the null hypothesis and say that there appears to be a relationship between population centers’ indicator and main sources of stress at 5% level of significance]
[The biggest amount of time is being spent by employees with high school diploma, the least time is being spent by employees with the lowest level of education. This may be because the last ones are not so responsible and know less about their job. The standard deviation is almost similar for all 5 categories. The highest measure of variability is for those who have the lowest level of education. The lowest is for doctors, bachelors and masters. That is because the last ones know their job very well and spend more “usual” amount of time to complete their tasks.]
Since p-value is lesser than 0.001, we have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis and say that there appear to be a statistically significant relationship between total duration and highest level of education (at 1% level of significance)
The least dispersed data is for the highest degrees. That’s because people with high level of education know their job good enough and spend some “typical” time for the same tasks. Those, whose level of education is lower, are more dispersed in their average time limits as they are less confident in their work and face more difficulties.
Linneman, Thomas (2011). Social Statistics: The Basics and Beyond. New York: Routledge.
Argyrous, G. Statistics for Research: With a Guide to SPSS, SAGE, London, ISBN 1-4129-1948-7