A person that would understand the importance of valid and efficient assessments of early reading proficiency are the primary school teachers and principals. Efficient assessments demonstrate which of the children are failing in crucial reading skills so that the teachers can help students make better improvement in learning how to read. Valid and dependable tests do also help. Reliable and legitimate tests also help observe the efficiency and effectiveness s of instructions for all the children; without the need of consistently evaluating the children’s improvement in learning how to read, we would not be able to know which child needs more help and which are likely to create good improvement without additional help.
An extensive assessment plan for elementary students who are at an early stage mainly has these objectives; first is to identify the students at the start of classes that are at risk in having difficulties in reading, those students might need comprehensive interventions or even additional instructions. Next is to supervise the students’ improvement during the school year to determine if susceptible students are able to achieve sufficient improvement in crucial reading skills, and then, to collect pieces of information about the students that will be beneficial in making plans to fulfill their crucial learning needs. Lastly is to do assessments if the instructions that are being provided by teachers are adequately effective to help the students meet reading standards starting from kindergarten up until the third grade.
Florida Department of Education. "Just Read, Florida!" Just Read, Florida!. N.p., 2005. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.
About the photographs
The concealed meaning from the photographs cannot be reasoned out straight away by just a single glance. There has to be an in-depth contemplation of its elements in order to obtain the message embedded from the text, photograph and the caption. In order to understand the context of each photograph, a reader must rely on his own perspectives to come up with an interpretation. Lange’s unique way of presenting the images describes her approach in teaching the readers to interpret her work. Presumptions can be made, but knowing the proportion, focus and relation of the photographs are essential to developing an understanding. As mentioned by Lange in her foreword, her work is neither an illustrated book nor a book of photographs. They are the result of their technique to represent proportion and relation (Lange 290).Lange uses the techniques of focus, proportion and relation to teach the viewer in interpreting the photographs, for the viewer to decipher the unspoken story of the people being photograph and not the author’s own thoughts.
Given the description of the author’s intentions, the interpretation then depends on how the viewer sees the images based on the understanding of the techniques used in the images. In a technical point of view, the way the pictures was arranged and their relation to the caption and the text signifies various scale and size of elements incorporated within the image’s design. In order to determine the relationship between objects within the photograph, a reader should first determine the elements of proportion in the images. For example, the picture captioned as “Hoe Couture” (Lange 292), there were other text to explain the meaning of the photo. However, it was only given a very short caption that combines the word “hoe” and “Couture. For a traditional reader, it defines a particular fashion sense, but in Lange’s work the caption and the photo itself speaks a different thought. Such thought pertains not to the person wearing the clothes, but the garment itself. If the reader would associate the caption to the photo, it would mean the picture is a description of cotton farmer’s normal outfit in the cotton field. The word “hoe” refers to the tools that farmers use in their everyday work, which defines the type of people being featured in the documentary. Couture is the word associated to fashion, which pertains to the garment in the photo. Therefore, the person in the picture wants to convey a thought that, the tattered clothes and almost rug-like condition of it is a symbol of the cotton farmer’s struggles.
Another example is the photo of a black woman standing near what appears to be a wooden signage. There were no captions to give a quick description of the photo but instead a text or statement that can be assumed to have come from the African-American woman in the photo (Lange 314). Reading the text indicated at the bottom the photo provides the viewer a clear statement of a person’s thoughts about the speaker’s life situation. However, the picture conveys a confusing statement if to be plainly viewed. To be able to get the connection of the text to the picture, the viewer should first take some time to look at the picture. After which, the viewer should analyze the elements of the photo such as depth and focus. In terms of proportion, the photo was able to deliver proportional perspective of size. Notice the size of the wooden billboard against the woman standing below and the man sitting right underneath the billboard. Another important element of the photo is the depth perspective, which can be seen on the background as the road and the sky converge in the horizon. When talking about the focus, the photo showed a mix of objects in one image, which conveys an idea that the viewer should pay attention to those objects in the image because they are interconnected in terms of providing meaning. Although the statement at the bottom the picture reads differently, it still describes what the woman in the picture is trying to say. Given that the picture shows depth perception due to the differences in the size of the objects within it. The text underneath gives a statement to that depth due to the words that reads “Do you reckon I’d be out on the highway if I had it good at home” (Taylor 314)?
The way the pictures, the relationship of the text and captions arranged by the authors is similar to telling a story about the journey of the people in the literature. They were not placed in random order like any other techniques performed by other authors. All of the pictures and their placement intentionally delivered in illustrative manner. Readers would understand their meanings better and the entirety of the text as they go through the book because even the photo speaks of a story that has a strong relation to the rest of the corresponding texts. It appears that the authors wanted to teach the reader to read beyond the surface of what their vision perceives. There is an element of critical thinking involved in reading and understanding the pictures apart from comprehending the texts. Each photo is represented in a manner that they compliment the text and highlights the context of the book at the same time. The several elements found in all the pictures provide a strong justification to the objectives of the works of Lange and Taylor. Since the authors are aiming to present the real situation of the people through their documentary, it is only fitting that the techniques should apply appropriately to the objectives.
In a nutshell, Lange and Taylor were able to achieve their demands from the reader as being more critical about what they are reading. Having to arrange and position in each photograph in such a way that they represent not only the illustrative aspect of the project, but also to convey an important message. The texts are generally the traditional approach in representing ideas. However, the use of photographs provides more depth to the context of the work and to the texts as well. Lange and Taylor was able to teach their readers to dig deeper into their innate understanding of what they are reading even if it’s not in a textual form. As for the overall feel of the Lange and Taylor’s project, they obtained the real objective of their work by presenting reality in images. At the same time, they were able to use the photographs as a point of understanding the entire book.
Bartholomae, David, and Tony Petrosky. Ways of Reading: Words and Images. Boston, New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2003. Print.
Lange, Dorothea. "Hoe Couture." Bartomea and Petrosky 292
Lange, Dorothea. "The Country’s in an uproar." Bartomea and Petrosky 314