It was not until 1953 that the biological science was better understood. Earlier on scientists had tried so much to definite the structure of nucleic acid. With the help of information by other scientists Watson and Crick were able to discover that Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA exists in the shape of a three dimensional double helix. From late 19th there were various researches to determine the components of the molecule. DNA was first discovered in 1869 by a Swiss physiological chemist Friedrich Miescher, he was able to locate nucleon in the nuclei of white blood cells. The name Nuclein was later changed to nucleic acid and now its called deoxyribonucleic acid. Though Miescher work was recognized during those times, he made a landmark with this discovery which forms the foundation of today’s research (Pray, 2008).
Watson and Crick in their combined efforts and interest in the cells structure they were able to uncover the myth behind the cells. Initially Watson was drawn to molecular biology by Salvador Luria who was researcher making use of viruses that infect bacteria known as bacteriophages. After working together for years in his laboratory, Watson took keen interest in the phage group and there was a clear indication of discovering the physical structure of the gene. Further analysis showed that genes were proteins that replicate themselves and apart from this he came to a conclusion that DNA was genetic molecule and was responsible for hereditary functions. Watson experiments involve use of x-rays to inactivate bacteria one of the major tasks that is a must do in the analysis of phage group. Also the use of radioactive phosphate to locate which component of the molecule is targeted by the bacteria during infection is an indication that nucleic acid is a hereditary gene (Pray, 2008).
Other scientists majoring in X-ray crystallography and microbial analysis provided facts and evidence on Watson and crick inventions. The study proofed that it was DNA and not protein chromosomes that were active in the hereditary genes and from this they realized that the genes were transferable from parents to their children and will be the course for generations. Watson and crick’s background also contributed a lot to the understanding of biological science in that they used to travel and transfer from one institution to the other. They gained a wide field of skills and knowledge through their experiences and were able to get enough resources and equipments which facilitated their research activities, their students also supported their projects and provided necessary question that lead to deep research of the subject (Norman et. al, 1994).
Before they concluded that DNA was a three dimensional molecule they first relied on the prediction of one of the scientist known as Pauling who was American biochemist. They build up models relating to the molecules and from advanced techniques, the three dimensional structure was arrived at known as the double helix. The double helix structure shows exactly every component of a DNA molecule and how they fit into each other. That is A with T and C with G and held together by hydrogen bonds. Due to their various discoveries, they have received various awards including the Nobel Prize in physiology of 1953 and they have got promotion in the fields ranging from associate professors to full time professor. It is while they were administering their duties that they have interacted with the public and delivering seminars pertaining different issues and also they have written so many journals, articles and books to educate the public on current biological science. Watson also as a way of sharing his ideas have develop a program of visiting schools, institutions, and colleges to deliver speeches on topics related to biological sciences and their impact to the society. They motivate the youth to take up the tasks of venturing into the world of discoveries and hates laziness. Watson considers stupidity as the worst disease ever and needs to be treated before it spreads further (Edelson, 2000).
As one might expect, Watson and Crick have ventured into the world with their discoveries. Despite their professional career they are doing their private duties and couching and at private institutions. They do that with the need to help diversify their experiences and skills and help other modern scientist establish their standards of discovery. More so the two have opened up online website and posted their journals articles and books. This wealth of resources is available at the click of the button and thus anyone can get access to them anytime. Their contribution to better understanding of biology is further seen in the development of extensive and none ending experiments and daily research on the expansion and understanding the relationship between biology and other subjects. They have even gone a niche higher and experiment on the nature of the brain and how it coordinates events in human lives. In 1970s Crick did a research on the relation of traditional cultures and Christianity. His findings are amazing and he even predicted that by the year 2000 the world would have taken a different direction in how human beings relate to the environment and for sure such inventions as cloning and plastic surgery attest to this phenomenon (Norman et. al., 1994).
Since science is a complex subject, Watson and Crick did not carry out their research single handedly. They incorporated the works of other scholars and used past discoveries to advance on their own. This shows that science needs our attention and contribution if we are to see it proceed in the future. They always teamed up especially when they are faced with a critical and complex issue. Advances in ideologies calls for advances in technology this is evident by the use of X-ray crystallography, diffraction and development of models. Biological science therefore does not stand alone; it requires the combination and experience of other fields like physics and mathematics (Edelson, 2000). Also with their discoveries, they have simplified the work for the doctors and clinicians since they can now handle the treatment of various diseases and they know why some diseases are hereditary (Edelson, 2000).
Norman, J., Cohn,W. and Moldave, K. (1994). Progress in nucleic acid research and molecular biology. Philadelphia: Chemical heritage.
Edelson, E. (2000). Francis Crick & James Watson and the building Blocks of life. New York: oxford university press.
Pray, L. (2008). Discovery of DNA structure and function: Watson and Crick: Nature Education 1(1). Philadelphia: chemical heritage.