The provision of case management services is done within correctional and community environmental in aiding individuals improve their criminal behaviors and conditions. In the current world, criminal activities have become rampant with the increased cases of robbery, murder, and drug abuse. The community perceives violent crime as the most perilous crime as a result of its integral effect on the public. Therefore, the government has initiated measures and mechanisms through which violent crimes can be combated. For instance, community and correctional setting facilities have facilitated in improving the security situation within the country.
Correctional setting involves a coordinated approach of programs that are undertaken in dealing with violent offenders. In the past, imprisonment was the only recognized way to deal with criminal and violent offenders in the society. However, the government has come up with myriad programs and approaches through which violent offenders can be managed. Unit management approach of correction enhances self-responsibility and aims at the achievement of individual prisoners' needs. The government has initiated unit management and high security units in ensuring efficiency in management.
Community setting in case of management entails the institution of programs such as individual therapy, coordinated programs, and anger management groups based on community intervention. The aforementioned programs help in providing relationship support among offenders and establish a corrective approach to culminating criminal activities in the society. Most criminal offenders may have psychological problems that contribute to their criminal activities. Therefore, criminal offenders are able to understand and acknowledge their causative problem and put the necessary measures into place. Community setting approach ensures that criminal offenders have minimal chances of committing further crimes upon going back to the community.
The process of case management in the criminal justice system is carried out depending on the criminal offense and subsequent special needs. For instance, special treatment clients include individuals with mental illness, HIV & AIDS infected, and acute or chronic problems. As a result, administration of myriad criminal correction mechanisms will vary from individual to the other. For instance, not all criminal offenders are subjected to a correctional setting case management. According to the law, some criminal offenders may commit crimes as a result of psychological and mental problems. Therefore, such cases are treated with specialty in order to prevent unjust and bias criminal sentences. Courts are obliged to subject criminal offenders to either community or a correctional setting management depending on the case at hand. Individual therapy has been the oldest and traditional community setting approach used to counsel prisoners through establishment of a supportive affiliation. Psychological education and therapy play an important role in anger management approach among criminal offenders. These programs are important in managing anger and facilitating relaxation strategies.
The alteration of the entire process is necessary in the fulfillment of offenders' needs that may have complexity in the case of management. Most individuals have difficulties in establishing the cause of their behavior and subsequent impact. For instance, violent men and sex offenders need to undergo special treatment programs in order to alleviate their conditions. There can be deployment of various ways, such as cognitive restructuring, relaxation therapy, behavioral strategies, and anger management. The psychosexual therapy programs are treatment strategies that target violent men who commit sexual assaults on women and children. Treatment approaches are necessary for such criminal perpetrators as they are presented with appropriate advice and counseling. Therefore, criminal offenders are offered myriad treatment approaches depending on the nature of criminal activity.
Criminal offenders vary from robbery, sexual assaults, drug and substance abuse, and breaking of laws and regulations within the jurisdiction. The treatment of these criminal offenders also ranges from community based to the correctional setting of management. The entire process of case management entails procedures and mechanisms that are adopted by the criminal justice system in ensuring criminal offenders reintegrate in the society. Management of case in a criminal justice system rests on the concept of social work and assignment a client to the case manager. The connection between a client and case manager is important in accomplishing the set targets. In the criminal justice system, the case manager liaises with the law enforcement authority in the determination of a possible solution to criminal offenders. A case management between the case manager and a criminal offender has some aspects of therapy. However, some individuals view case management as a waste of resource.
There are certain cases where clients require both setting for efficiency in management. Some criminal offenders may be subjected to both community and correctional settings as directed by a court of law. Treatment levels between offenders defer within an individual and case manager in the respective case management. Therefore, the rank and case management selected by criminal offenders must be personalized and on a multidimensional base. Financial aspect can greatly influence the case management a client chooses. A client overburdened with responsibilities, resistant to treatment or lacks motivation to involve in the case of management is less likely to adopt both settings. On the contrary, case managers can recommend for both correctional and community settings depending on the client's ability. A client is subjected to more than one case management approach to ensure efficiency of the entire process.
There is an imperative need for confidentiality and work ethics in dealing with clients regarding the criminal justice system. Work ethics is crucial in all relationships involving a client as regulations and policies stipulate. The importance of confidentiality between both parties is important as there is exposure of crucial and private information. In court proceedings, case manager needs to be aware of all necessary information concerning the client. As a result of the sensitivity of some issues, this information is placed under confidentiality. On the other hand, the key objective of having work ethics is to prevent harmful results to the client due to breach of contract agreements.
According to the United States' laws and regulations, case managers are limited in disclosure of the client's information. Therefore, sharing of clients' information is prohibited by law as some clients' matters are private and confidential. The Case Management Society of America (CMSA) ensures that case managers adhere to the stipulated rules and regulations concerning ethics and confidentiality of client information. The importance of confidentiality lies in the judgment imposed on the client by a court of law. Case managers find it helpful in keeping some clients' issues confidential to prevent opponent case parties from winning. The client is obligated to trust the case manager with every tiny detail and information in order to provide substantial proof and defense against a court of law. As a result, the information to the case manager by the client should not be disclosed to a third party unless the necessitated by law.
Leukefeld, C., Gullotta, T. P., & Gregrich, J. (2011). Handbook of Evidence-Based Substance Abuse Treatment in Criminal Justice Settings. New York: Springer.
Lurigio, A. J. (1996). Community Corrections in America. Washington: DIANE Publishing.
Powell, S. K. (2000). Case Management: A Practical Guide to Success in Managed Care. Maryland: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.