This research paper examines three commonly-used food coloring substances: annatto, cochineal and saffron. Topics addressed include the sources of the colorings (geographic and in nature), how they are used (with which foods), and how they are affected, e.g. by cooking or by acidity when used.
Annato is a naturally-occurring dye, ranging in color from a “bright yellow to deep orange” (“What is Annatto?” n.d.). The seeds of the achiote tree – indigenous to Central and Southern America – are the source of the dye, which in those regions is not only used as food coloring but simply as a dyestuff and for medicinal purposes, ...