Chapter 3 Summary
The chapter talks about the human nervous system. It starts with an introduction to neuron, its constituents and functions. It tells about neuron and its various constituents like Soma, Dendrite, Axon , Terminal Button, Synapse, Glia etc. Then it talks about neural impulse and various types of neurons like post synaptic and pre synaptic neuron. Then the chapter tells us about PSP which stands for Post Synaptic Potential. It tells about the differences in Agonist and Antagonist PSPs. Then the chapter tells about various transmitters and their roles like Dopamine, Serotonin, Norepinephrine etc. and the diseases that are caused by their deficiency.
The chapter then tells about Organization of Nervous System. It tells about the Peripheral Nervous System, Somatic Nervous System, Afferent Nerve Fibers, and Efferent Nerve Fibers, Automatic Nervous System and Central Nervous system and its roles. It also talks about Flight or Fright response and All or None law.
The chapter states various Brain research methods like Electric Recording, Lesioning, Electrical Stimulation of Brain, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Brain imaging procedures. It also tells about brain and its behavior. It summarizes various parts of brain and their functions like the Hindbrain, Medulla, Pons, Cerebellum, Midbrain, Forebrain, Thalamus and Hypothalamus. It tells about the roles of various parts of brains in controlling behavior and human nature. It then tells about the five Fs to survival which are fighting, fleeing, feeding, fleeing and mating. Then it talks about the Limbic system, Cerebrum, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral hemispheres, Corpus Callosum and different types of lobes like Occipital lobe, Parietal lobe, Temporal lobe and frontal lobe and their functions in human body.
It then tells how the brain can be divided into two parts: right brain and left brain. It tells about the Split brain research etc. It also tells about the hemispheric specialization of intact brain like Perceptual Asymmetries, Left hemisphere, Right hemisphere etc. The chapter also talks about the endocrine system, hormones and pituitary gland. It then tells about the heredity and behavioral genetics. It tells about basic principles of genetics like Chromosomes and its different type, Zygote, Genes and its various types etc. It also tells about various heredity research methods like family studies, twin studies, adoption studies, genetic mapping and interplay of heredity and environment. It also talks about evolutionary bases of behavior like survival of fittest and natural selection. It then talks about refinements to evolution theory as suggested about Theodre Dobzhansky, Adaption, and Inclusive Fitness. It also tells about Behavior adaptive trait.
Behavior as an Adaptive Trait
- Behavior Adapts over Generations to help avoid Predators and to Reproduce.