Tropical forests destruction has received worldwide attention for the reason that they play an exceptional role in ecological and evolutionary terms; the increasing risk to their survival and the multiplicity of functions they serve. Deforestation has negative environmental impacts and hence leaves those humans who benefit from the use or existence of forests worse off. Deforestation degrades ecosystems and that other species are put under stress. Many of the profits of forest conservation as well as the impacts of the deforestation are globally observed. Tropical forests are home to many millions of people including numerous indigenous groups, and comprise the richest diversity of flora and fauna – biological diversity or biodiversity. Tropical forests cover some seven percent of the Earth’s surface, and contain 50 percent of all species. This biodiversity is valuable for a number of different reasons; direct use, education and scientific research.
Deforestation has a number of deleterious impacts on livelihoods of forest inhabitants and on the local and global environment. In addition, deforestation causes the local and global extinction of species, some of which remain unknown and unrecorded to science. The atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) have been increasing rapidly in the last century or more with the likely consequences of changes in the global climate through the greenhouse effect. The increases are a direct result of the burning of fossil fuels, of other industrial processes, and of other interventions in the global carbon cycle such as deforestation and other land-use changes. Although the loss of biodiversity may be viewed as global cost of deforestation, in many respects it is the costs to the local population of the loss of diversity of species and of other functions of forests which is of primary concern. The use of forests by those people dwelling in or adjacent to them for productive, non-productive, and symbolic and cultural purposes is a principal factor in determining a strategy for sustainable utilization.
Widespread deforestation has significant effect on ecology and economy and the causes of it also call for discussion. The primary causes of deforestation are the clearing of land for other uses such as agriculture, and unsustainable logging. But the underlying reasons for uneconomic and environmentally destructive decisions about forests and land-use management are also the causes of deforestation. The specific causes like population pressure, indebtedness, or the structure of world timber trade, there are two fundamental causes giving rise to deforestation.
First cause is the competition between humans and non-humans
for the remaining ecological niches on land and in coastal regions. In turn, this competition reflects the rapidly expanded population growth of developing countries. Secondly, the fundamental cause is the failure in the workings of international and national economic systems. Failure in this sense means the failure of these economic systems to reflect the true value of environmental systems in the working of the economy. Essentially, many of the functions of the tropical forests are not marketed and, as such are ignored in decision-making. Additionally, decisions to convert tropical forests are themselves encouraged by fiscal and other incentives for various reasons. These causes lead to destruction of the tropical forests. The benefits of the tropical forests are not elaborated upon and taken seriously by governments though past few decades have seen increased concern on global warming and consequently, deforestation.
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