In their publication (Jean Louis & Frederic Hitzel) indicates that a vast pan-Islamic state of the Turks started its expansion in the small Turkish emirate location within the boundaries of the present republic of Turkey. It extended to North Africa, some part of Middle East and southeast Europe. It had also gained temporal authority over secluded overseas lands in the mode declarations paying of allegiance to the Sultan and Caliph. The publication further indicates that the empire was the pivot of interactions connecting the Eastern and the Western world for six centuries. This Ottoman Empire was an Islamic successor to the Byzantine Empire. Though not clearly in the research work the Ottoman Empire seem to have initially originated from the Hittites. These were the people who occupied the current republic of turkey before the establishment of the Ottoman Empire.
To affirm on my link on the Hittites and the Ottomans (Kinross, 39) explains that the land of Anatolia on the east of the Marmara Sea was inhabited by an advanced Neolithic society in the seventh millennium B.C. The Hittites later conquered Anatolia and established an Empire. (Kinross, 39) includes that the Hittites had arrived in Anatolia in the second millennium BC. Alexander the Great conquered the entire Anatolia late fourth century B.C. and Pergamum was made the center of the Roman province. Pergamum remained the cultural hub for centuries this city was later renamed to Constantinople. At Byzantium Emperor Constantine established a capital in 330 A.D. Then the Roman Empire was then known as Byzantine Emperor.
The (Kinross, 39) asserts that in the seventh century A.D. Turkish forces conquered Byzantine army and occupied the Anatolia. In the next few centuries the Seljuk relentlessly pushed westwards. In 1097 the Christian world responded to the push claiming part of the Anatolia. For the next two centuries Byzantine had split and the Osman I Reign dominated the Anatolia. It is the troops of the Osman I that gave Anatolia the name Ottoman Empire. He was the son of Ertuğrul a Ghazi mercenary who had migrated from central Asia to Western Asia Minor, this part of the movement of Turkic population under pressure from the Mongol spreading out in central Asia. The early discovery of metal use gave the Turkic population an upper hand in battles over the neighbor. The iron discovery was followed by the use of chariots, this was an advancement that lead to numerous victories.
Ottoman Empire was the last of the Turkish Muslim empires. Ottoman empire started spreading in the beginning of about 1300 form Minor Asia, encompassing large part of the middle east, North Africa and then to parts of Europe like the modern Albania, Greece, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary and Yugoslavia. The Ottoman also ruled in the Middle East in Syria, Egypt, part of Arabia and Iraq and Palestine. The Ottoman Empire also reached the Black sea stretched to Armenia and the Caucasus in Central Asia (İnalcık, 3). Being a Muslim empire and under one source of power, the ottomans had developed a strong administration, this is a clear indication of a well neat administration fiber. Regardless of the week sultans the administration structure was able to control the area they ruled and to conquer more regions. It is in order to note that the unified factor was a catalyst success both economically and administratively.
In the beginning of the Ottoman sultans rule there was insecurity. In their endeavor to combine their Empire the sultans of the Ottoman formed collection of fanatical fighters. These were the commands of the Janissaries, the Christian converts to Muslims and the slaves. The Ottoman Empire imposed a chain of defeats on the dilapidating Christian Byzantine Empire quickly expanding their territory westward (Jean & Frederic, 17). He further indicates that the Mehmet changed the name of Constantinople city to Istanbul and rebuilt it, both politically physically, and made it his capital. Istanbul, because of its position became one of the greatest trade centres in the world and a political and military capital. The other important city was Bursa; it was the centre of silk trade. Parts of the Ottoman conquest were anticipated for control of other trade routes. The economics might of the Ottoman Empire owed to a great extent Mehmet’s policy to increase traders and artisans within the Empire. He initially encouraged traders to shift to Istanbul, later forcibly relocated them from captured territories like Caffa (Jean & Frederic, 17). By encouraging the outside world to trade in the emperor this developed the Ottoman region to be a pivot on regional trading. The inclined trade affairs strengthened the Ottomans materially.
Ottoman economic history can be divided into two sub-periods (Faroqhi, 27). Faroqhi, explains them as the classic era, which comprised of an agricultural economy. This shows regional distinctions in the empire. The second period of Ottoman economic history was the reformation era. Reformation era comprised of a state organized reforms which brought about political and administrative structures in the course of to state and public functions. The change started with military reforms to military associated unions. The Ottomans saw military growth and fiscals as the major source of wealth (Faroqhi, 29). A unified religion practice and use of their commonality to their advantage in battles and forcefully converting captives strengthened the Ottoman economic hub, and war fares.
On other occurrences (Gascoigne, 23) says that Agriculture was seen to have great significance than the commerce and manufacture. The rise of the cities in the coast line saw the clustering of populations resulted from the development of steamships and railroads. The economic and political movement made a change across the empire.
The Russian and Austria-Habsburg conquest of the Balkan and Crimean regions saw large arrival of Muslim refugees fleeing to Dobruja. From1783 to1913, approximately 4-6 million refugees arrived into the Ottoman Empire some of whom were Russians (Gascoigne, 27). Several migrations left lasting marks like political tension amongst parts of the empire i.e. Turkey and Bulgaria. Economies were affected with the loss of merchants, artisans, agriculturists and manufacturers. The worth of the land and the sea transport was driven mainly by the hard work of the Ottoman administration over time. The physical Location of the Ottoman Empire was a great factor to their economic strength. Any factor that would compromise the use of transport would affect immensely the performance of the economy and that is the main reason why the European state strategized on finding some other way of venturing other parts of the world.
In their publication (Jean Louis & Frederic Hitzel) indicates that Turkey’s history tells of a civilization of 10,000 years. Anatolia was the melting pot where the cultures from Assyria Babylon and summer interacted for Centuries among communities such Hittites, Hourrites and Hattis. A unique Anatolian civilization was formed which had extensively inspired thoughts and legends from the West. First independent city states were witnessed by the ancient Bronze Age. At the moment the indigenous Hattis inhibited Anatolia. In their publication (Jean Louis & Frederic Hitzel) further explains that around 3000BC, troy was founded, it came with a major role of importation of tin and vital for producing bronze. The huge Turkish sultanate established in the 13th century by Osman I, later headed by his descendants to its ending after the World War I. They indicated that it was initially a small state controlled by Ottoman Turks which spread speedily, prevailing the Byzantine Empire from the east. The emperor was named for Osman I between (1259-1326) a Prince in Bithynia and Turkish Muslim who conquered bordering regions once led by the Seljuk reign. The first Ottomans troops invaded Europe in 1345 by sweeping throughout Balkans. Despite the fact that he was defeated by Timur in 1402, under Mehmed II by 1453 had destroyed the Byzantine Empire capturing the capital, Constantinople, the city there after served as Ottoman capital.
The empire, joined up by Muhammad I, extended successfully under Murad II and Muhammad II. The conquests of (1444) at Varna over the army go headed by Ladislaus III of Poland which was later followed by (1453) capture of Constantinople. The Ottomans had changed from nomadic horde to the inheritors of most ancient extant empire of Europe. Ottomans’ success was partially to the disunity and weakness of their opponents, partly because of excellent and much superior military association. Ottoman Empire’s army comprised a lot of Christians not only recruit, being organized as corps of Janissaries and volunteers. The converts and faith extremists offered to volunteer in army. This dedicating counts as an army muscle which would provoke any neighbor at ease.
The Ottoman Empire attained its highest peak under Suleyman I, and the son Selim I (1512-1520). Suleyman conquered parts of Persia, Arabia and large part of Hungary and Balkans. The Ottomans had defeated the Mamluk by 16th Century and their navy seizing the control of the Barbary Coast. Starting with Selim, the sultans of Ottoman also attained the title of Caliph, a spiritual head among Islam (Kinross, 31).
The wars of Austria and Poland late 17th and 18th centuries further destabilized the empire. In the 19th century the Ottoman Empire was referred to as the “the sick man of Europe.” The remaining part of Europe was abandon in the Balkan (1912-1913). The Ottoman Empire sided with the Germans during the World War I and the treaties after the war disbanded the Empire. In 1922 the sultanate was put to an end by Mustafa Ataturk Kemal. In the following year he declared the Republic of Turkey.
(Goffman, 23) indicates that the sultans were living in Topkapi palace in Istanbul. Their lives were run by rituals adopted from Byzantine court. The palace possessed many objects that gave authority to reinforce the ottoman’s Sultan claim as the leader of all Muslims. The most significant was Prophet Muhammad’s mantle, his standard and the footprint. These were taken from Egypt after Cairo fell was conquered by the Ottomans. He adds that Harem was seen as paradox; it featured the Ottoman Empire and contained a lot that was not allowed among Muslims. According to (Gascoigne, 24) Ottoman Empire was extravagant, vulgar, and decadent. The focus of wealth, injustice and suffering to women was not among the principles of marriage in Islam. However, it could get benefit to a family with a woman in the Harem. It indicated support, prosperity and authority; it assured access to the Sultan.
According to the (Feroqhi, 239) the architecture of Ottoman Empire was a blend on Seljuk and Iranian architectural background as it was observed in buildings of Konya, Mamluk and Byzantine works. Calligraphy held a prestigious position in the Ottoman Empire. This art was shaped by a great Abbasid calligrapher of Baghdad Yakut al-Mistassini. His influence spread all across the Muslim world. Carpet weaving was an art which was significant in the Ottoman Empire. He indicates the importance of this art was mutually decorative furnishings which were enriched with religious symbolism and as realistic consideration. The nomads from central Asia are the ones who originated with the weaving. The Turks used the carpets foe floor and walls and doorways. Jewels were also used and had specific importance and they were used as wedding rings. Silver was commonly used but gold was reserved for high-status individuals.
(Donald, 153) indicates the Ottomans Empire cuisine can be subdivided in to the Ottoman Empire Court cuisine which was extremely complicated and the elaborated fusion of numerous of the culinary tradition that was found in the Empire, and the local cuisines for the peasantry and the minorities, the regional cuisine were influenced by the produce of their respective region. Something like rice was a high-status cookery staple. He further adds that Royally cooks were employed in accordance to the skills they displayed when preparing it. While rice was regarded as luxurious through most parts of Anatolia, bread was their staple grain food.
The Russo-Turkish war was amid the Ottoman Empire and the Russia. (Colin, 35) points out that this war was caused by the disagreement over the outcome of the polish war of succession of (1733-1735). He continues to assert that continuous raid by Crimean Tatars also facilitated this war. Russo-Turkish (1735-1739) war also corresponded to the Russia’s continued effort to get access to the Black sea. Before the outbreak of Russo-Turkish war, the Russians had secured a favorable international position by signing several treaties with the polish throne in the reign of Augustus III (1735). In support of the Augustus III instead of the pro-Turkish Stanislaw I Leszczynski provoked the war. in 1737, Austria and the Ottoman empire entered into the war in which Austria was defeated severally Ottoman Empire, Russia and Austria later began negotiations at Nemirov, which were fruitless. A plague outbreak forced the Russian Army to leave Kinburn and Ochakov .In 1739 Turks conquered Austria at Grocka a Belgrade Peace Treaty was signed with the Ottoman Empire.Impending threat of the Swedish attack by the Turks, obligated Russia and Turkey to sign the Treaty of Niš which ended the war.
The Balkan wars were the two wars that of south-eastern Europe of 1912 – 1913. The first Balkan war started on October 1912; when Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria and Montenegro attacked the Ottoman Empire halting a five century old rule of Balkan in a period of seven months campaign leading to the treaty of London. The second Balkan war of June 1913 was brought about by discontentment of Bulgaria on the divisions of Macedonia which was made in secret by Serbia and Greece. Ottoman Empire and the Romania took the advantage intervening against Bulgaria to make territorial gains. Bulgaria In the second war lost territories it had gained in the first War. The treaty of Bucharest was signed.
According to (Kinross, 39) in 1839 was a reform reorganization period launched by Hatt-I Sharif. In this period the sordid motive and acts of cruelty was kept in continuous operation. The property of all persons condemned were seized and submitted to the crown. At the time of Mahmud II the financial position of the Empire had started troubling. Some of the social classes had been oppressed extensively and put under hard tax duty. In the late 16th century the Ottoman power had started to decline. It forces had repeatedly besieged Vienna. After the last effort at conquering the Austrian capital was unsuccessful (1683), and following losses led them to surrender Hungary in 1699. Decadence and corruption gradually destabilized the government.
According to (Jean & Frederic, 17) there are three groups of Turkish speaking community i.e. Meskhetian Turks, Syrian Turkmens and the Iraqi Turkmens. The Turk occupies Germany Bulgaria, Syria, Iraq and Turkey. These are people living in the lands of formerly Ottoman Empire. He indicates that due to modern migration large numbers of the Turkish people have been formed in Europe. Turks are known to have emerged from the Huns in the mid fifth century. It is believed that the original name for the Turks was Helmet. The Turkish are generally referred to the occupants of the current Turk though it is obvious that the Turkic community like any other community spread all over the world.
They were defined by their Persian language which was their mother tongue (Postgate, 13). She further illustrated that the word Persian had a super-ethnic implication and was used to refer to the Iranian people. The origin of the Persian people can trace to Indo-Iranians. They spread their language and culture to ancient Iranian plateau. They assimilated Iranic and non-Iranic groups with time. Persians are generally pan-national group comprising of regional people. they rarely refer to themselves as Persians they sometimes referred to themselves as Iranians.
There is no clear origin of Mongolic speaking tribes; the research proposes a possible link between the Mongolic and the Turkic and Tungsic. (Gascoigne, 53) indicates that these are tribe often associated with the Mongolic hypothetical group; the Altaic languages those grouping are controversial. The Mongol people include all those people who speak the Mongolic language like the Kalmyks of the eastern part of Europe. He explains that the name Mongo is found on the Chinese records and it is dated back to 8th century during the reign of Khitan. They grew in the 13th century into a union with the Turkic tribes under the rule of Genghis Khan. Mongolian and Europe merge against the Ottoman was a great blow to the Ottoman Empire who had concentrated enemies with time. the fall of the ottoman was very gradual and started with such tactics.
In Mesopotamia the ancient Iraq there lived Sumerians from mid 6th Millennium BC to 2nd Millennium BC. According to (Postgate, 13) Sumerians architectural accomplishment were the invention of the urban planning, the ziggurat step pyramids and the courtyard house. Their religion refers to beliefs and practices followed by different inhabitants of Mesopotamia. Mesopotamians were polytheistic; they worshiped over a thousand different deities.
Turkey’s history tells of a civilization of 10,000 years. Anatolia was the melting pot where the cultures from Assyria Babylon and summer interacted for Centuries among communities such Hittites, Hourrites and Hattis (Faroqhi, 26). A unique Anatolian civilization was formed which had extensively inspired thoughts and legends from the West. First independent city states were witnessed by the ancient Bronze Age. At the moment the indigenous Hattis inhibited Anatolia. At around 3000BC, troy was founded, it came with a major role of importation of tin and vital for producing bronze. (Faroqhi, 26) continues to indicate that there are several reasons leading to the success of the Ottoman Empire one being highly centralized governance. The power of the emperor was transferred to one prince and not sprit among rival princes. The Ottoman kingdom was successfully ruled by a single family for a period of seven centuries. The state was run by a judicial system and united by Islamic ideology and the Islamic warrior code. Highly practical, ottomans absorbed the best ideas from other cultures. They encouraged allegiance from other faith cluster. These were some of the factors that lead to a well net Ottoman Empire Fiber.