Before the author examines some of the research designs used in the specified articles, it is prudent that the author defines what research design is. The term research design simply means the methodology and the procedure which the researcher has used to conduct a scientific research. The following paragraphs shall focus on the research designs used in the following articles.
- Kvalem, Sundet, Riv??, Eilertsen, and Bakketeig (1996) article?.
The correct research design for this article is the survey research design. The fact that the pretest questionnaires had been handed out directly to the students in the classrooms during February 1990 and which was to be filled and then returned back via the email justifies the use of the survey research design. This is because questionnaires are always used to carry out surveys.
Description of survey
This is where the study is done through collecting information from a larger number of cases. Survey may be done using questionnaire. It is important to note that the survey can either be cross-sectional; where data is collected at one time or longitudinal; where the data is collected over a period of time.
- Van de gaer, Pustjens, Van Damme, and De Munter (2008) article?
The correct research design for this article is developmental or the time series research design. In this type of research design, data is collected at certain points in time going forward. In this research design, there is emphasis of the time patterns and the longitudinal growth or change. The fact that we are told that the study began in the year 1990 which later followed a cohort of more than 6000 Flemish students during their secondary education and afterwards justifies the fact that it is a developmental research design.
Description of developmental research design.
Development design is the type of design mostly used in psychology to explain developmental stages of a particular phenomenon. In developmental research design, the study is done in stages over a given period of time.
- Olusi (2008) article?
The correct design used in this article is known as experimental research design. For instance, we are told that the design employed the use of 270 subjects which were randomly assigned to groups and then pre-tested at the beginning. We are told that the subjects were then exposed to treatments and then eventually post tested. This justifies the fact that it was experimental design because some experiments were carried out.
Description of the experimental design.
Experimental design entails the use of experiment to validate a given hypothesis. It involves carrying out of experiments so as to prove a given hypothesis. It can also be said that it entails the deliberate manipulation of certain intervention so as to determine its effects. The intervention may be done by individuals, schools, teachers or any other unit.
- The selected article is by Olusi (2008) article?
Before the question about the threat to validity brought by this design is discussed, it is important to define the term validity. The term validity means the ability of the test to measure what it is intended to measure. The research design used in this article is known as experimental research design. Some of the important threats in experimental design is to do with issues of generalisability which sometimes is referred to as external validity. This implies that careful attention should be given to sampling, response rates and instrumentation just as it is survey.
- It is important to note that there are different inferential statistics. The inferential statistics is always used to make judgment of the probability that an observed difference between groups is a dependable one or one which might happen by chance. This implies that we use inferential to make inferences from our data. The type of inferential statistics is depends on the type of variable such as the nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio variables. Therefore, the two inferential statistics from the table 1 include.
- Regression analysis
- Pearson correlation
- Descriptive statistics include statistics which gives a description of a given phenomenon or data.
- Measures of central tendency
- Measures of variability.
a. it is crucial to note that from the article, different student had different ways through which they get motivated. However, there were some notable relationships on how the students are motivated. Among the seven motivation ways, it was observed that those who were intrinsically motivated to experience and stimulation had very unique personality profile compared to the other academic motivations. It was also observed that students who were motivated by stimulation were open to new experiences which were the only distinguishing characteristic for this type of motivation. This was a strong indication that student endorsed this type of motivation most.
b before the author identifies the type of personality trait which the students varied the most. It is first important to acknowledge the five personality traits which were available. They include extroversion, agreeableness, consciousness, neuroticism, openness to new experience and consciousness. However, among the three different types of extrinsic motivation, all were extroverted and agreeable; however, they did vary in consciousness and neuroticism. Of the five personality traits, the student show most variation in openness to new experience. However, there was no reason given to justify this.
Babbie, E.R. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. London: Cengage Learning.
Kothari, C.R.(2008). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques.U.S.A: New Age International.
Clark, M.H. Schroth, A.C. (2010). Examining relationships between academic motivation and personality among college students. U.S.A: southern Illinois University.