Introduction One of the fastest growing costs for the hospital care and physician services in the economic health is the prescription drug costs. The main factors that influence the prescription drug costs are the price fluctuations, consumption, and drug types. In the U.S., Americans continue to utilize more prescription drugs to manage their health. Billions of dollars are spent on promoting brand name drugs in the cost and demand for these drugs continues to rise. Generally, the generic drugs are three times cheaper than brand name drugs. Many countries are spending more on healthcare because people are consuming more healthcare services that include the overuse and misuse of health care, the major contributor to the increased health care costs. For example, some people visit the emergency room when an urgent care clinic or the doctor’s office visit could meet their needs at a much lower cost sufficiently. Another important cost driver is the result of doctors practicing defensive medicine. The act of over-testing patients is the safety measure that many doctors obtain to protect themselves from malpractice lawsuits. Annually, in the United States, nearly three-quarters of their doctors practice defensive medicine at the projected cost of 650 billion dollars. The medical advances are another significant cost driver while new technology can be life-saving, and there is a cost involved in making such treatments available. The new proactive researchers in economics are ultimately concern with the reduction of inequities in health and achieve the justice in health research and health care globally.
Health Care Environment
Global health is the main concern of many advocates to improve the community health workers and to provide policies and practices in achieving universal health care. The ethnographic research plays a vital role in providing information critical to the formation of the effective community health worker. It desires to alleviate the economic and health challenges through productive working relationships intended for health developments. Currently, in the field of global health, many advocates affirmed the significance of the health care development. For example, in the U.S., the Frontline Health Workers Coalition and the One Million Community Health Worker Campaign emerged together with the partnerships among universities, foundations, international nongovernmental organizations, and multinational pharmaceutical companies to improve the economy in health care. The major global health institutions have identified massive shortages of community health workers. Thus, the innovative and evidence-based policies that improve retention, recruitment, and performance of community health workforces are very important.
Health Care Economics
Traditionally, the non-communicable diseases are a rich world problem that has been spreading speedily in low- and middle-income countries. Today, the account for the large share of mortality and ill health are widespread in different nations in the world. The non-communicable diseases impose substantial economic costs. Particularly, in low and middle-income countries, inadequate health costs pre-payment systems occur such as health insurance. When out-of-pocket medical care expenditures are very large that is relative to the material resources availability to the household, it becomes a terrible issue in the economic health care.
In the U.S., 46.3 million Americans approximately do not have health insurance. This increasing number of people contributes to the increasing cost of healthcare in the country. People without health insurance coverage wait to seek medical care are not unusual events. It complicates a simple health problem and making it more costly to treat the illness. Also, people without insurance coverage usually seek treatment for the non-emergency ailments in the emergency room. Another contributing challenge to affordable health care coverage is maintaining the balance between healthy people and the counterparts. The sustainability of health insurance coverage is based on the variety of people in the collective status; healthy and unhealthy sharing the risk. On the contrary, the health care fraud is no longer a surprise to the public; health care fraud is the key factor of the increasing healthcare costs (Maes, 2014). The public should be aware of it and work with law enforcement agencies that provide plans to prevent or control fraud and abuse.
Health Care Organization
Ultimately, many researchers are concerned with reducing inequities in the global health and their goal of achieving justice in health care, as well. Considering this goal, recently, a limited amount of the scholarship has started to reflect on whether a theoretical basis exists for the position that international research can aid to promote global health equity. If it possible, the necessity to identify the implications is for its conduct. The theories of justice from political philosophy established obligations for parties in high-income countries to improve the health of parties in the low- and middle-income countries. The theories show clear grounds to provide for the claim and the international research should be conducted to advance justice in global health.
The research for health justice framework was developed by the bioethicists after its conceptual work was undertaken. It expected that the identified theories of justice are capable of serving as the basis of a framework linked to the international research to the reduction of health inequities. As suggested by the health systems researchers, to serve appropriately, theories needs to: (1) establish health-related obligations of justice with the application of the international research performed by researchers; (2) offer additional direction that substantively guides the model of international research performed in resource-poor settings; and (3) provide a second-tier mechanism that allocates specific duties to the fulfill the health-related obligations to the specific international researchers. The health capabilities refer to individuals’ ability and freedom to achieve certain health functions such as the avoidance of the preventable morbidity and mortality, and health agency such as the ability to make effective health choices.
High-Quality Patient Care
In achieving the effective and efficient care of the public, every nurse practitioner is needed to aid in providing cost effective care in the community. For example, as reported by the University of Sheffield study conducted, the cases of childhood tuberculosis in higher risk in India and Afghanistan with 25 percent higher than estimated prevalence of the illness. Nurse practitioners are needed to help the communities with the suggested treatments by the researchers. By 2025, it is projected that a nursing shortfall of 260 thousand; the health organizations are pursuing their effort to improve nurse morale and productivity. The strategies include innovative approaches to proper staffing, health and wellness of the employees, and training and development. When the economy will not improve, there is going to be a large number of nurses leaving. Thus, it will affect the high quality of patient care. Retaining nurses is important for providing stable patient care environments and building high-quality patient care.
The future of healthcare lies in the economic development of the country. Many factors have influenced health care costs and it became clear that controlling health costs will take a lot of efforts by the stakeholders such as the consumers, health insurers, health providers, and the government.
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