In this report, the discussion explains the controls required to prevent physical and chemical contamination of food. It compared the characteristics of food borne infections and food poisoning. It further discussed how to control food borne illnesses. It categorized the food spoilage agents and discussed methods of food preservation. It highlighted the importance of effective prevention systems in control of food contamination with two case studies. It also constructed a food hazard assessment, a food safety control system and a food safety guide.
The given is the report that was sent by the Compliance Officer of the hotel when the incident of a perceived food poisoning took place in a wedding reception. A report is explaining the incident in detail.
Were the Safety Regulations Followed?
After searching all the departments of the hotel, it was concluded that the hotel aptly followed food safety regulations apart from one, which led to the incident. These included:
- They did not utilize crude materials or another material as a part of preparing items.
- Sustenance items and elements were put away in sustenance premises in proper conditions.
- Storerooms were kept clean and precise to minimize the potential risks from "remote bodies" and to keep the harborage of nuisances.
- Frosty rooms and coolers were kept clean.
- Great individual cleanliness was an administrative necessity.
- There were sufficient things for cleaning.
- There was satisfactory procurement for the evacuation and capacity of catering waste.
- There was consumable water in the galleys and kitchens.
Comparison of Food Borne Infections and Food Poisoning:
Food poisoning is created by devouring sustenance that contains poisons. Micro living beings might deliver these poisons. This can happen commonly in the sustenance (for instance, in specific mushrooms) or could be a contaminant.
On the other hand, food borne illness is created by irresistible pathogens (microscopic entities that cause diseases) in the sustenance. These microscopic entities increase in the digestive system. By and large the sustenance contamination is truly mellow; most individuals just have looseness of the bowels. More seasoned individuals, little the hotel or individuals with a frail safety are most seriously influenced. Legitimate warming of nourishment can avoid food borne illness. Very nearly all non-spore framing microscopic organisms are executed at temperatures over 70 °c.
Measures Adopted by the Hotel to Prevent Food Borne Illnesses:
Food was cooked at appropriate level of heat so that the pathogens present in the food may die. The cooks were a bit negligent in this regard as thermometers were not used to check whether the food was heated up to the appropriate temperature or not. In haste, they sometimes gave the food less cooking time to present it to the customers on time.
Environmental control was its very best where it was made sure that there were no pests or insects. Zones around nourishment premises were kept clean and clean to diminish the quantity of conceivable reproducing locales. Outer decline compartments were clean and in great repair, and had tight fitting covers. Waste nourishment compartments were washed out before being put away outside. Entryways were kept shut.
Hygiene was a very important issue as all the staff washed their hands, and the hotel staff cleaned all the cooking utensils thoroughly. Raw material was kept separate, and the temperature of the fridges and freezers were optimum.
Reason behind the Incident:
The reason behind the food poisoning incident is not proper cooking of the meat. Sometimes, the cooks didn’t let the meat be cooked enough as they wanted to get their meals out on time. The safe cooking temperature of the lamb is 160 centigrade, but I noted that it was being cooked at around 145 most of the time. It was presented at the wedding. Furthermore, no thermometers or probes were being used. The pathogens in the food must not have died as the meat was not heated enough.
Food Spoilage Agents:
There are two factors that cause spoilage of food:
- Outward variables
- Inborn variables
Outward variables are elements in nature outer to the nourishment, which influence both the microorganisms and the sustenance itself amid preparing and stockpiling. Outward elements incorporate temperature, moistness and oxygen. Diverse microorganisms develop over an extensive variety of temperatures. The moistness of the stockpiling environment is an imperative variable for the development of microorganisms at the nourishment surfaces. Numerous microorganisms need oxygen keeping in mind the end goal to create and recreate.
Inborn elements exist as a feature of the sustenance item itself. Most microorganisms develop best at near the impartial PH esteem (PH 6.6 to 7.5). Just a couple of microorganisms grow in extremely corrosive conditions underneath a PH of 4.0. Dampness: Microorganisms require a sodden environment to develop.
Food Preservation Methods Observed by the Hotel:
The hotel observes some food preservation methods that are quite good, so that they don’t have to encounter the food spoilage agents in their food. They are as follows:
The presentation of business and residential iceboxes in the hotel definitely enhanced the results by permitting nourishment. For example, new products of the soil, greens, and dairy items were put away securely for more periods, especially amid warm climate.
Freezing is a standout amongst the most utilized techniques for protecting an extensive variety of sustenance. For instance, potato waffles are put away in the cooler, yet potatoes themselves require just a cool, dull spot to guarantee numerous months' capacity.
In curing, salt is normally included.
Nummer (2002) states:
“In the culinary world, it was regular to pick crude salts from different sources (rock salt, ocean salt, etc.)” (Nummer, 2002)
Msagati (2012) states:
“Illustrations of salts that are more cutting edge, are utilized as additives, incorporate sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium nitrate (Nano3) and sodium nitrite (Nano2). Indeed at mellow focuses (up to 2%), sodium chloride, found in numerous sustenance items, is equipped for killing the antimicrobial character of common compounds." (Msagati, 2012) The meat is effectively cured at the hotel.
Milk is heated appropriately up to 70 c for 15 to 30 seconds to kill any microbes present.
Some nuts are stored in air tight bottles to prevent oxidation and loss of flavor.
The hotel’s strategies regarding this method include spreading the sustenance, for example, apples and oranges or grains, on a warmed surface.
Effectiveness of the Food Preservation Methods:
These methods have been very effective for the hotel as these methods have helped their food from being spoiled. These methods are effective and also keep the flavor of food, thus providing health as well as taste. But what thought was that the hotel has employed quite traditional food preservation methods. With the technology out there, they can employ better methods.
Emerging Trends in Preservation Methods:
“Illumination of food is the introduction of sustenance to ions.” (1991) The treatment has a scope of impacts, including slaughtering microorganisms, molds, and creepy crawly bugs. Obviously, a hotel's kitchen staff cannot perform this, but what my point here is that the hotel should use sustenance from sources that use such techniques.
Technical Report (1981) states:
“Illuminated nourishment does not get to be radioactive, and national and global master bodies have pronounced sustenance illumination as wholesome.”
Alasalvar (2010) stated:
Hurdle Technology is a system for guaranteeing that pathogens in nourishment items could be disposed of or controlled by joining more than one methodology. These methodologies could be considered "obstacles" the pathogen need to overcome on the off chance that it is to stay dynamic in the nourishment. (Alasalvar, 2012, p. 203)
Importance of Effective Food Preservation Systems in the Control of Food Contamination:
Temperature Control System:
If we don’t control the temperature, harmful bacteria may develop in them causing food contamination that result in food borne illnesses.
- The most dependable system for checking temperatures is by the utilization of a suitable thermometer – a methodology regularly alluded to as Probing. This technique wasn’t properly performed in the kitchen.
- Fridges had temperature dials in them; chills and frosty showcases demonstrated the air temperature inside the apparatus. To prevent further such scenarios of food poisoning, these fridges should be checked customarily with a computerized thermometer as a down up check.
- The storage of chilled sustenance was maintained at 5°c.
- The storage of incoming food was maintained at 4c.
- The cooking of meat was done till 75c most of the times but when there was a rush, it was cooked to only 70c, which led to the incident.
Whatever temperature control strategy they utilize from now on, it is vital that the Critical Limit is attained on every event, to prevent such incidents. Nonetheless, this does not imply that each thing of sustenance which is continuously held icy, cooked, warmed or hot held needs to be observed utilizing a thermometer on every event.
Techniques for Safe Storage of Foods:
- At whatever point new shipments of sustenance arrive, the more current nourishment should be set behind the more established sustenance so the more seasoned nourishment is utilized first. The nourishment should be named with the date it was gotten and a "utilization by" date to guarantee fitting sustenance security and freshness.
- Place meat as low as possible.
- Store sustenance in sealed shut compartments.
- Store all nourishment off the floor.
- Temperature control still applies.
- Don't over-burden refrigeration units.
- Keep retires and floors clean and composed.
Importance of Personal Hygiene- A Case Study:
Personal hygiene is a key factor in preventing contamination of food. Thus, it should be observed with great care. It was observed the hotel’s hygiene department in depth.
Hand washing offices are present in kitchens and toilets incorporate hot and chilly running water, cleanser and a suitable method for drying the hands. Normal checks by senior staff are made to guarantee these offices are accessible. Smoking is not allowed in nourishment regions. Sustenance handlers, including cooks, holding up, and bar staff in addition to store men wear suitable clean defensive garments. There is a change in such apparel at the end of a shift. There is a division of toilets for cooking staff from those for non-cooking staff and guests. Toilets are not inside a nourishment arrangement region.
Importance of Cleaning and Disinfestation:
Cleaning offices must be developed of materials impervious to consumption, must be not difficult to clean and have a sufficient supply of hot and icy water. As said earlier, it was present. Gear things that come into contact with high-chance sustenance should be cleaned and offices to clean sanitize all devices and supplies, porcelain, cutlery, glasses and serving dishes. Shade coded cleaning gear should be cleaned, dried and put away in an assigned region once completed. This technique was not thoroughly brought into practice.
Problems Associated With Pest Control- Case Study:
Pests are known to convey various pathogenic life forms that might be transmitted to people through debased sustenance. Also, vermin will harm sustenance stocks bringing on budgetary misfortune. It is subsequently imperative that nourishment premises are kept vermin free.
Disavowal of sustenance, warmth or safe house keeps the survival of irritations. This can be termed as ‘Natural Control”, and is the first line of guard against conceivable infestation. Natural control may be considered as dissent of access (sealing), sustenance and harborage. No emphasis was made on environmental and physical control, and this issue needs to be resolved as quickly as possible. As the hotel is new, there has been no contamination because of pests yet, but if no control is taken, when time passes, food contamination may take place.
Ranges around sustenance premises are not kept clean. On the other hand, outside reject holders are clean and have tight fitting tops. Waste sustenance holders are washed out before being put away outside. Windows and different openings which give ventilation are not fitted with snug cleanable fly screens. Entryways are kept shut.
Importance of Training as a Quality Assurance Mechanism:
Training of the staff after hiring them for a job is very important in assuring quality food. The staff needs to be trained to store food properly. To ensure that the food is cooked thoroughly, they should know how to use certain equipment like thermometers properly. They should be trained to maintain perfect hygiene to prevent any contamination. Transport of food should be handled by the workers carefully. They should be taught all the cleaning standards to prevent food spoilage.
The Need of a Hygiene Design and Construction of Food Premises:
Looking at all the issues discussed above, we can deduce that there is a great need for a proper hygiene design and construction of food premises. These need to be ensured, otherwise, food spoilage may occur resulting in illnesses and may cause serious diseases.
Nourishment premises ought to be planned in a way that they:
- Are utilized in a proper way;
- give sufficient spaces to nourishment creation and other auxiliary offices and gear;
- minimize the probability of nourishment tainting;
- Encourage simple cleaning, disinfecting and upkeep.
The composition of format of nourishment premises ought to be in such a way that:
- nourishment stream is in one bearing the extent that this would be possible (i.e. getting → stockpiling → arrangement → bundling/ serving → transportation → retailing);
- sufficient spaces are accommodated nourishment readiness, sustenance stockpiling, scullery, stockpiling of supplies/ utensils and establishment of clean fitments;
- Nourishment or clean consuming utensils are not passed on through the open space.
Dividers ought to be composed and built in such a path, to the point that they are equipped for being effectively kept clean yet not giving harborage to pests. Ceilings ought to be of consistent development so that there are no unfilled spaces or joints. The surfacing of floors in kitchens and sustenance rooms ought to be done with non-elusive, non-spongy and effortlessly cleaned and sturdy materials.
Each sustenance room, kitchen and scullery territory ought to be furnished with no less than one wash hand bowl for utilization by the staff. The standard of procurement is one bowl for each 20 staff.
Nourishment premises ought to have sufficient common or mechanical ventilation to successfully evacuate vapor, smoke, steam, high temperature and buildup emerging from the sustenance premises, and supply outside air thereto.
Food Hazard Risk Assessment:
Food Safety Control System:
Food laws and regulations should be followed at all costs. The laws should be such as described in the food safety guide below. There should be a proper management for the maintenance of food so that it may not be spoiled. There should be proper inspection services so that everything may be checked at a neutral vote, and if there needs to be made changes, they should be made readily. The training of staff should be a necessary procedure after hiring them. To be successful, sustenance law and regulations ought to be pertinent, enforceable and "proactive" (that is, have a preventive segment) so they can give an abnormal state of wellbeing security. They should additionally incorporate clear definitions to expand consistency and legitimate security. There are necessities to be checking of agreeability with nourishment laws.
HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) is an acknowledged sustenance wellbeing framework. Its idea concentrates on the avoidance of nourishment wellbeing issues before they happen and is acknowledged by universal powers as the best method for controlling sustenance borne ailments.
There are seven standards of HACCP:
- conduct a risk investigation
- focus the basic control focuses (CCP)
- create discriminating breaking points
- create checking technique to control the CCPss
- create remedial activity when checking shows the CCP is not controlled
- put set up methods for confirmation/affirm that the HACCP is working successfully
- hold documentation for all systems and records
It is paramount to survey the HACCP at consistent interims. With a specific end goal to follow this regulation, tool stash can be downloaded straightforwardly from the Food Standards Agency Website.
Food Safety Guide:
Food Borne Illness:
Food borne illnesses are caused by the intake of food which may have pathogens in it or which is contaminated in any form. Such contaminated food can cause vomiting, loosening of the bowels, headaches and food poisoning, etc. To prevent such illnesses, food must be treated properly, and the kitchen and disposal area should regularly be cleaned with great care.
Great individual cleanliness practices are a vital piece of giving safe nourishment to our clients. Among this cleanliness rehearses, the most imperative is hand washing. Representatives must wash their hands and lower arms. The hotel ought to perceive when the hotel hands get to be debased and wash them to keep from passing the sullying on to the nourishment the hotel are planning and serving. The hotel must wash in a sanction, assigned hand sink. Sinks used to wash dishes, or plan sustenance are not affirmed for hand washing. Immediate exposed hand contact with prepared to-consume sustenance is precluded.
Cleaning and Sanitizing:
Wiping materials for cleaning and purifying must be accessible in every work territory for supplies. In the wake of cleaning and purifying, it is important to let the dishes air dry on the channel board or rack.
Cross Contamination and Food Storage:
The hotel can avert cross-tainting by washing and purifying each utensil, cutting board, sustenance arrangement table, and work territory previously, then after the fact coming in contact with sustenance.
Food Storage Limits:
Nourishment ought to dependably be utilized as a part of the same request in which they were gotten. All arriving nourishment items ought to be checked with a date.
Any nourishment served in the hotel foundation must originate from an affirmed source.
Applying any pesticide is strictly denied unless it is carried out by an expert, authorized vermin control applicator. The ideal way to control cockroaches, mice, flies and different vermin is to keep the foundation and junk regions clean and to wipe out concealing spots.
It is to a great degree imperative that the hotel utilizes a metal stem thermometer to check the temperature of the sustenance the hotel is cooking. The thermometers must be washed and sterilized before coming into contact with the sustenance, and between utilizations, to forestall defilement.
The hotel management ought to know how to react to crisis circumstances. On the off chance that they are unsure how to react to a crisis, they ought to call the wellbeing office for counsel.
If hotels and restaurants do not follow specific food laws and regulations, such incident: food poisoning can occur. Food borne illnesses can be caused by a number of agents, and proper methods should be adopted so that they may not occur.
- Nummer, B. (2002). “Historical Origins of Food Preservation”
- Msagati, T. (2012). “The Chemistry of Food Additives and Preservatives”
- Anon., Food Irradiation - A technique for preserving and improving the safety of food, WHO, Geneva, 1991
- World Health Organization, Wholesomeness of irradiated food. Geneva, Technical Report Series No. 659, 1981
- Alasalvar C (2010). Seafood Quality, Safety and Health Applications. John Wiley and Sons, Page 203.