– Homeland Security as created by the US constitution after the 9/11 terrorist attack to the World Trade center in New York. Since then, it has boosted the Defense policy in a number of ways. It has ensured enhanced scanning of all flight passengers in all US bound flights to ensure that there is no chances of sneaking explosive devices in such planes. Homeland Security has also utilized the modern technology in dealing with terror threats. In this way, it has used the modern scanning devices to screen all passengers before any flight can commence. It has also installed CCTV cameras in major airports to provide surveillance throughout the day. In addition, the Homeland Security has also signed counter-terror attack treaties with countries such as Austria and European Union. These agreements have boosted its collaboration with the international community on information sharing.
– The US Public Health Policy is providing guidelines that ensure that all citizens are accessible to good health care as guaranteed by the constitution. In this policy making, there are two major players that include the government and the US Public Health Association. These two bodies perform contrasting roles. The government comes up with the public health bills which are then debated upon by the members of the Senate and the Congress. Upon their approval, the bills are forwarded to the President who assents them into laws. However, before the bills are fully instituted into laws by the government, they are scrutinized by the public health association. In doing so, it ensures that the government upholds the citizens’ rights to public health. It also ensures that the government provides an equitable access to public health services for all its citizens. The two bodies involved in this process perform contrasting roles in the formulation and achievement of the Public health policy.
– The Social security policy has undergone several reforms that have shaped its operations. Some of the major reforms were constituted by President George Bush while the rest came into place during President Obama’s reign. Former president bush came up with a Social Security Scheme that reduced the gap between the rich and the poor. He integrated price indexing and wage indexing. In this way, he used a mechanism which ensured that the rich were subjected to price or inflation indexing while the low income earners were evaluated based on wage indexing. This increased the benefits of the low income earners as compared to the high income earners.
– The criminal procedure is very detailed process. However, this is a summary of how it happens. In the first stage, the complainant writes statement stating the charges which is done under an oath before a magistrate. This is followed by filing of the affidavits issuing arrest warrants or summons regarding the complaint. The warrant must clearly state the reason for arrest and the complainant. The third stage is the first appearance of the defendant before a magistrate judge, a state or local judicial officer. This must be done immediately after the arrest unless otherwise. Next, the judge exposes the defendant to a preliminary hearing of the offences charged against him or her. During this hearing, the judge evaluates the credibility of the charges leveled against the defendant. If the judge finds no probable cause to believe the offence was committed, he/she discharges the defendant. If found otherwise, the case proceeds to the next levels of full trial and ruling. After the ruling of the jury, the defendant is allowed to appeal if he/she is not contended with the ruling.
– The key actors in the US environmental and Resource policy are the Natural Resources Defense Council the government and the US Environmental protection Agency. The three bodies work together with other stakeholders to ensure that environmental policy achieves its objectives.
Christopher A. S., Public Policy: Preferences and Outcomes, 2nd Ed., Longman Pearson, 2010.