This is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted among a representative sample of the elderly people aged between 65 to 85 years. They are residents of Salisbury, MD. The main objective was to describe the reported usual dietary intakes of the participants in the Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) project and to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes using the probability approach.
Food frequency questionnaires were used to obtain the level of nutrient intake among these participants. The questionnaires were to estimate the level intake of energy and protein. Percentage energy intake was determined by theintake of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. The total intake of cholesterol, vitamin A, carotenoids, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin C, niacin, iron, calcium, zinc, and folate were also tested. There was an estimated prevalence of inadequate intake of nutrients among the 2,655 participants who had complete nutrient information. These results were calculated using the probability approach.
The representative participantswere whites and blacks from both genders. On average, the results of the questionnaires reported that the white participants had a higher mean of energy and nutrient intake than the black participants. Zinc had the highest record of inadequacy across all gender and race categories followed by calcium, vitamin E, and vitamin B-6. On the other hand, vitamin C and folate recorded the lowest rate of inadequacy with intake lower than 13% and 17% respectively.
It was therefore concluded that there was a difference in estimated prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among the races. From this survey, many elderly persons have low dietary intake of key nutrients. This is according to the current nutrient requirements for adults aged 65 to 85 years.
A Descriptive Summary of A personal Portrait of the Rodrigues Fruit Bat
In the early 1970s, the Rodrigues Fruit Bat was known to be the rarest bat in the world. However, today, its distinction no longer exists and it is probably the cutest bat in the world. This is due to the conservation efforts on Rodrigues Island and captive breeding centers around the world.
Having spent more than eight years observing the fruit bat both in captivity and while framed against the verdant leaves of the Rodriguan forest, I realized that it goes beyond the typical flying fox bat. Compared to the flying fox which is generally attractive, they are adorably fuzzy. Their chocolate brown fur accented with splashes of gold extends from the shoulder to the back. Its facial features of foreshortened muzzle, liquid black eyes and mobile triangular ears make it resemble a chow dog with wings.
Like the flying fox, they weigh less than a pound with 2.5 inches wingspan. Despite their size, the Rodrigues fruit bats use their teeth for both grasping and holding fruits and preys. Their powerful lungs enable them make powerful screams during breeding and while being retrieved from mist nests. They also carry with them a good aroma which is produced in dermal scent glands. When they rub on to nearby branches, leaves and other bats, they can identify each other in social interactions.
Rodrigues flying bat cannot fly fast because of their short wings. They cannot fly against the wind without making headway and being pushed backward. The destructive winds of Rodrigues forests knock them out of trees and sweep them to the sea. Reforestation programs and protection of existing forests will make the bats continue to flap ponderously over Rodrigues for many years to come.